Education Quarterly Reviews
Published: 30 April 2021
Alice Growing Up in ‘Temporary Protection’ Land: Immigrant Students’ Identity Development as a Reflection Toward Inclusion Practices
Gaziantep University, Turkey
Download Full-Text Pdf
Keywords: Immigrant Students, Identity Development, Acculturation
Our aim was to understand the adaptation process, belonging to Turkish culture, ethnic identity development among Syrian students arriving in Turkey and how they develop a sense of belonging and adapt their identities to become integrated into Turkish life and education. In this study, qualitative method and phenomenological research design were preferred. The process of adaptation of immigrant students to a new culture, school and ethnic identity was investigated. Convenience sampling method was preferred, and semi-structured interview form was used as data collection tool. As a result of the content analysis, three categories and 12 concepts related to the adaptation process were revealed. Three concepts were frequently emphasized about the actions of the family in the adaptation process. Six concepts were frequently emphasized about events that led to significant experiences in the school in adaptation process. Three concepts were frequently emphasized about environments’ contributions to adaptation process. Three categories and 16 concepts related to belonging to new culture, school, and class were revealed. Six concepts were frequently emphasized whether they feel part of the new culture. Four concepts were frequently emphasized if they feel belonging to the new school. Six concepts were frequently emphasized whether they feel belonging to the new class. Three categories and 11 concepts related to ethnic identity in school were revealed. Three concepts were frequently emphasized about teachers' behavior in the classroom. Four concepts were frequently emphasized about ethnic identity grouping in activities. Four concepts were frequently emphasized about ethnic identity in games and homeworks.
Adu, P. (2019). A Step-by-step Guide to Qualitative Data Coding. Routledge.
Altunışık, T. (2002). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri (2. Basım.). Ankara: Anı Yayıncılık.
Berg, B. L. (1998). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn&Bacon.
Berry, J. W. (1980). Acculturation as varieties of adaptation. Acculturation: Theory, models and some new findings, 9-25.
Berry, J. W. (1983). Acculturation as varieties of adaptation. In A. Padilla (Ed.), Acculturation: Theory, models, and some new findings. AAAS Selected Symposium 39: Westview Press.
Berry, J. W. (2001). A psychology of immigration. Journal of social issues, 57(3), 615-631.
Berry, J. W. (2009). Living together in culturally-plural societies: Understanding and managing acculturation and multiculturalism. In Perspectives on Human Development, Family, and Culture (Ed. S. Bekman, A. Aksu-Koç): 227-240. New York, Cambridge University Press.
Berry, J. W., Phinney, J. S., Sam, D. L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant youth: Acculturation, identity, and adaptation. Applied psychology, 55(3), 303-332.
Birman, D. (1998). Biculturalism and perceived competence of Latino immigrant adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26(3), 335-354.
Bogdan, R. C., & Biklen, S. K. (1998). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods (3rd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Bourhis, R. Y., Moise, L. C., Perreault, S., & Senecal, S. (1997). Towards an interactive acculturation model: A social psychological approach. International journal of psychology, 32(6), 369-386.
Bourhis, R. V., & Dayan, J. (2004). Acculturation orientations towards Israeli Arabs and Jewish immigrants in Israel. International journal of psychology, 39(2), 118-131.
Bresnahan, M. J., & Kim, M. S. (1993). Predictors of receptivity and resistance toward international teaching assistants. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, 4(1), 3–14.
Catalano, T., Fox, J., & Vandeyar, S. (2016). Being “in a limbo”: Perceptions of immigration, identity and adaptation of immigrant students in South Africa and the United States. Journal of Language, Identity & Education, 15(3), 137-150.
Cervantes, R. C., de Snyder, V. N. S., & Padilla, A. M. (1989). Posttraumatic stress in immigrants from Central America and Mexico. Psychiatric Services, 40(6), 615-619.
Cokley, K. (2007). Critical issues in the measurement of ethnic and racial identity: A referendum on the state of the field. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(3), 224–234. doi:10.1037/0022-0188.8.131.52
Çelik, Ç., & İçduygu, A. (2019). Schools and refugee children: The case of Syrians in Turkey. International Migration, 57(2), 253-267.
Ellis, L. M., & Chen, E. C. (2013). Negotiating identity development among undocumented immigrant college students: A grounded theory study. Journal of counseling psychology, 60(2), 251-264.
Espin, O. M. (1987). Psychological impact of migration on Latinas: Implications for psychotherapeutic practice. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11(4), 489-503.
Eunyoung, K., & Jeannette, D. (2013). Collegiate Experience of Immigrant Students. ASHE Higher Education Report. 38(6), 61-75.
Ferguson, Y. L., Ferguson, K. T., & Ferguson, G. M. (2017). I am AmeriBritSouthAfrican‐Zambian: Multidimensional remote acculturation and well‐being among urban Zambian adolescents. International Journal of Psychology, 52(1), 67-76.
First, J., & Carrera, J. (1988). New voices: Immigrant students in U.S. public schools. Boston: National Coalition of Advocates for Students.
Flaskerud, J. H. (2007). Cultural competence column: Acculturation. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 28(5), 543-546.
Frattini, T., & Meschi, E. (2019). The effect of immigrant peers in vocational schools. European Economic Review, 113, 1-22.
Garza-Guerrero, A. C. (1974). Culture shock: Its mourning and the vicissitudes of identity. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 22(2), 408-429
Gibson, M. A. (2001). Immigrant Adaptation and Patterns of Acculturation. Human development, 44(1), 19-23.
Goodenow, C., & Espin, O. M. (1993). Identity choices in immigrant adolescent females. Adolescence, 28(109), 173-184.
Gordon, M. M. (1964). Assimilation in American life: The role of race, religion, and national origins. Oxford University Press on Demand.
Gülnar, B. (2011). Yabancı Öğrencilerde Kültürleşme ve Medya Kullanımı. Global Media Journal, 2(3), 51-68.
Im, A. H. J. (1998). Ethnic media and their effects on acculturation of immigrants to the United States: a study of Korean immigrants in Los Angeles (Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Fullerton).
Jaycox, L. H., Stein, B. D., Kataoka, S. H., Wong, M., Fink, A., Escudero, P. I. A., & Zaragoza, C. (2002). Violence exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depressive symptoms among recent immigrant schoolchildren. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(9), 1104-1110.
Jeffres, L. W., & Hur, K. K. (1980). The forgotten media consumer—the American ethnic. Journalism Quarterly, 57(1), 10-17.
Jeffres, L. W. (2000). Ethnicity and ethnic media use: A panel study. Communication research, 27(4), 496-535.
Kartal, D., Alkemade, N., & Kiropoulos, L. (2019). Trauma and mental health in resettled refugees: mediating effect of host language acquisition on posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive and anxiety symptoms. Transcultural psychiatry, 56(1), 3-23.
Kazemipur, A., & Hulli, S. (2001). The changing color of poverty in Canada. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 38(2), 217–238. doi:10.1111/j.1755-618X.2001.tb00971.x
Lee, W., & Tse, D. (1994). Changing Media Consumption in a New Home: AcculturationPatterns among Hong Kong Immigrants to Canada. Journal of Advertising, 13(1), 57-69.
Olson, L. (1988). Crossing the schoolhouse border: Immigrant students and the California public schools. San Francisco: California Tomorrow Policy Research Report.
Rogler, L. H., Cortes, D. E., & Malgady, R. G. (1991). Acculturation and mental health status among Hispanics: Convergence and new directions for research. American psychologist, 46(6), 585-597.
Rohmann, A., Piontkowski, U., & van Randenborgh, A. (2008). When attitudes do not fit: Discordance of acculturation attitudes as an antecedent of intergroup threat. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(3), 337-352.
Rubin, B. C. (2007). There’s still not justice”: Youth civic identity development amid distinct school and community contexts. Teachers College Record, 109(2), 449-481. doi:10.1.1.188.9545
Saygın, S., & Hasta, D. (2018). Göç, Kültürleşme ve Uyum-Migration, Acculturation and Adaptation. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar-Current Approaches in Psychiatry, 10(3), 312-333. doi: 10.18863.
Schwartz, S. J., Unger, J. B., Zamboanga, B. L., & Szapocznik, J. (2010). Rethinking the concept of acculturation: implications for theory and research. American Psychologist, 65(4), 237.
Silverman, D. (2001). Interpreting qualitative data: Methods for analysing talk, text and interaction. London: SAGE publication.
Torres-Matullo, C. (1980). Acculturation, sex-role values, and mental health among mainland Puerto Ricans. In A. Padilla (Ed.), Acculturation: Theory, models, and some new findings. AAAS Selected Symposium 39: Westview Press.
Unger, J. B., Gallaher, P., Shakib, S., Ritt-Olson, A., Palmer, P. H., & Johnson, C. A. (2002). The AHIMSA acculturation scale: A new measure of acculturation for adolescents in a multicultural society. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 22(3), 225-251.
Viswanath, K., & Arora, P. (2000). Ethnic media in the United States: An essay on their role in integration, assimilation, and social control. Mass Communication & Society, 3(1), 39-56.
Wang, Y. (2006). Internet use among Chinese students and its implication for cross-cultural adaptation (Doctoral dissertation, Kent State University).
Williams, C. L., & Berry, J. W. (1991). Primary prevention of acculturative stress among refugees: Application of psychological theory and practice. American Psychologist, 46(6), 632–641.
Yeh, C., & Inose, M. (2002). Difficulties and coping strategies of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean immigrant students. Adolescence, 37(145), 69-82.
Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2006). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin.