Education Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2621-5799

Published: 12 August 2020

Development, Validation and Standardization of Tertiary Examination Behaviour Inventory: Diagnostic Instrument for Measuring Cheating Tendency in Educational Assessments

Moses Chukwugi Ossai, Nathaniel Ethe, Dennis E. Edougha

Delta State College of Education (Nigeria)

pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf

10.31014/aior.1993.03.03.142

Pages: 313-324

Keywords: Tertiary, Examinations, Cheating, Behaviour, Inventory

Abstract

The research focused on development, validation and standardization of a diagnostic instrument called Tertiary Examination Behaviour Inventory (TEBI) for determining the tendency of students in tertiary institutions to participate in academic cheating. Anchored on the Modified Theory of Planned Behaviour (MTPB) and Item Response Theory (IRT), the table of test blue print covered the constructs of examination anxiety, examination ethics, study habits, and attitude towards cheating in examinations in one dimension and the phases (prior, during and after examinations) on the other dimension. Initial pilot study analysis of 50 items using test-retest reliability and factor analysis led to pruning down to 35 final items. The final sample size for validation of the TEBI was 1000 students drawn from higher institutions across the six geo-political zones in Nigeria and 3500 students for the standardization (construction of the national ‘norms’). The Conbach Alpha and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used to determine the psychometric properties. Standardized Cronbach Alpha (α = .78) is an acceptable index indicating internal consistency, reliability and validity. Each of the 35 items yielded scaled means above 80 and each item’s Cronbach Alpha is greater than .75. PCA yielded 13 factors from the 35 item TEBI. Those 13 factors contributed 62.73% variance in TEBI items. National ‘norms’ are 84.19% and 82.82% for male and female students respectively. Thus, TEBI is reliable, valid and standardized for use as a diagnostic instrument for identifying students who have positive dispositions towards academic dishonesty which is an educational monster.

References

  1. Ahmad, R. (2017). Teacher guidance and counselling efforts to prevent cheating behaviour. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 118, 765-770.

  2. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (2015). Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Dictionary.htm

  3. Ajzen, I. (2006). Constructing a TPB Questionnaire: Conceptual and methodical considerations, Retrieved from: www.unibieleofed.delajzen%construction%20%20questionnaire.pdfajzen2006

  4. Atueyi, U. (25 January 2019). Examiners reveal how private schools aid exam malpractice. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://guardian.ng/features/examiners-reveal-how-private-schools-aid-exam-malpractice/

  5. Bagraim, J., Goodman, S. & Pulker, S. (2014). Understanding dishonest academic behaviour amongst business students- The business leaders of the future. Industry and Higher Education,28, 5, 331-343, https://doi.org/10.5367/ihe.2014.0222

  6. Chudzicka-Czupała, A., Grabowski, D., Mello, A.L., Kuntz, J., Zaharia, D. V., Hapon, N., Lupina-Wegener, A., Börü, D. (2016). Application of the theory of planned behavior in  academic cheating research–cross-cultural comparison. Ethics & Behavior, 638-659, https://doi.org/10.1080/10508422.2015.1112745

  7. Cook Counselling Center (2020). Study skills checklist. Virginia: Division of Student Affairs, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and University. Retrieved from http://www.ucc.vt.edu/checklist.html

  8. Coren, A.(2012). The theory of planned behaviour: Will faculty confront students who cheat? Journal of Academic Ethics, 10, 171-184, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-012-9162-7

  9. Delta State college of Education, Mosogar (2019). Hand book. Benin City: Masega Publishers.

  10. Harding,T. S., Mayhew, M. J., Finelli, C. J. & Carpenter, D. D. (2007). The theory of planned behaviour as a model of academic dishonesty in engineering and humanities undergraduates. Ethics and Behaviour, 17, (3), 225-279.

  11. Hendy, N. T. & Montargot, N. (2019). Understanding academic dishonesty among business school students in France using the theory of planned behaviour. The International Journal of Management Education, 17, 1, 85-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2018.12.003

  12. Institute for Digital Research and Educaton, UCLA. (2013). What does Cronbach alpha mean? Retrieved from http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/SPSS/faq/alpha.html

  13. Madara, D. S., Namango, S. S. & Katana, H. (2016). Theories and models relevant to cheating behaviour. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 6, (17), 108-139.

  14. Magaji, A. (2019). NECO: Two decades of battling exam malpractice! Retrieved from https://www.thenigerianvoice.com/news/281097/neco-two-decades-of-battling-exam-malpractice.html

  15. McCabe & The International Center for Academic Integrity (2020). Statistics. Retrieved  from https://academicintegrity.org/statistics/

  16. McCabe, D. M., Trevino, L. K. & Butterfield, K. D. (2001). Cheating in academic institutions: A decade of research. Ethics & Behaviour, 11, 219 – 232.

  17. Mckenzie, K., Murray, K. R, Murray, A. L. & Richelieu, M. (2015). The effectiveness of  university counselling for students with academic issues. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research 15(4) · DOI: 10.1002/capr.12034

  18. Numan, A. Hassan, S. S. (2017). Effect of study habits on test anxiety and academic achievement of undergraduate students. Journal of Research and Reflections on Education, 11, 1-14.

  19. Okorodudu, R. I. (2016). Emotional homoestatic equilibrium: counselling for longer life. 48 Inaugural Lecture Series of Delta State University, Abraka.

  20. Omeri, M. (2012). Nigeria Tops Examination Malpractice Index World-wide. Retrieved from  www.dailytrust.com.ng/index.php/news/171616-nigeria-tops-examination-malpractice-index

  21. Ossai, M. C. (2004a). Study habits and examination anxiety as correlates of students’attitude towards examination malpractices in tertiaryinstitutions in Delta State (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Delta State University, Abraka.

  22. Ossai, M. C. (2004b). Counseling for the prevention of examination malpractices: Study habit as predictor of students’ attitude towards examination malpractices. The Counsellor, 20, 1-12.

  23. Ossai, M. C. (2011). Study habit predicts examination behavior: An imperative for enhancing quality of college guidance and counseling. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences,2, 23-28.

  24. Ossai, M. C. (2012). Age and gender differences in study habits: A framework for proactive counseling against low academic achievement. Journal of Education and Social Research, 2, 67-73.

  25. Ossai, M.C. (2013). Study Habits, Anxiety and Examination Malpractice Attitude. Saarbrucken Germany: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.

  26. Ossai, M. C. (2014). Counselling imperatives of students’ examination taking behaviour for personal-social and moral development in Nigerian schools. Delta Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 2,11-23.

  27. Ossai, M. C. (2018). Taming the educational monsters: The rescue and reformative roles of  the guidance counsellor. 3rd Inaugural Lecture Series of Delta State College of  Education, Mosogar.

  28. Ossai, M.C (2019). Theory and practice of Guidance and Counseling (2nd ed.). Benin City: Masega Publishers.

  29. Ossai, M.C. & Omoni, G.E. (2006).Counseling against corrupt practices: Impact of cognitive behaviour modification and video therapy on students’ examination behaviour. The Counsellor, 23, 46-55.

  30. Ossai, M. C., Ethe N., Okwuedei, C.A. & Edougha, D.E. (2014a).  Manual of Examination Behavior Inventory (EBI). Benin City: Masega Publishers.

  31. Ossai, M. C., Ethe, N., Okwuedei, C.A. & Edougha, D.E. (2014b). Development of examination  behaviour inventory: An integrity measure for prevention of cheating in school exams. World Journal of Education, 4, 2, 37 - 49.

  32. Pareek, U. (2005). Training instruments in HRD and OD (2nd Ed.). New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company.

  33. Passow, H.J., Mayhew, M. J., Finelli, C.J. & Carpenter, D.D. (2006). Factors influencing engineering students’ to cheat vary by type of assignment. Research in Higher education, 47, (6), 643-684.

  34. Punch Editorial (September 15, 2019). Stamp out cheating in examinations. Retrieved from https://punchng.com/stamp-out-cheating-in-examination

  35. Silva, C. N. (2010). Ex post facto study. In N.J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Research  Design. Retrieved from www.knoweldge.sagepub.com/view/researchdesign/n145.xml. D01:10. 413519781412961288.

  36. Spielberger, C. D. (1987). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

  37. The UK’s Office of Qualifications and Examinations Regulation (Ofqual, 2019). Types of penalties issued to students 2017-2018. Retrieved from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk

  38. UNESCO. (2000a). Module 1: Guidance. France: Ag 2i Communication.

  39. UNESCO. (2000b). Module 2: Counselling. France: Ag 2i Communication.

  40. Walker, T. (2012). What can be done about student cheating? Neatoday – National education Association. Retrieved from http://www.neatoday.org/2012/12/11/what-can-be-done-about-student-cheating.

  41. Wijayanti, A., Sugiharto, Y. P. & Wibowo, M. E. (2019). The Effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) Group Counseling to Reduce Cheating Behavior. Jurnal Bimbingan Konseling, 8 (2) (2019). 102 – 107. Retrieved from https://journal.unnes.ac.id/sju/index.php/jubk/article/view/27934

About Us

The Asian Institute of Research is an online and open-access platform to publish recent research and articles of scholars worldwide. Founded in 2018 and based in Indonesia, the Institute serves as a platform for academics, educators, scholars, and students from Asia and around the world, to connect with one another. The Institute disseminates research that is proven or predicted to be of significant influence for the general public.

Contact Us

Please send all inquiries to the email:

editorial@asianinstituteofresearch.org

Business Address:

5th Floor, Kavling 507, Fajar Graha Pena Tower, Jl. Urip Sumohardjo No.20, Makassar, Indonesia 90234

Copyright © 2018 The Asian Institute of Research. All rights reserved