Education Quarterly Reviews
Published: 13 March 2020
Development and Validation of the Ethical Climate Questionnaire in a Saudi Educational Context
Saleh Ali Y. Alqarni, Abdulrahman Hamed Alsulami, Ali Hasan Alqarni, Mohammad Akron Alfadeel, Khushnoor Khan
King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Download Full-Text Pdf
Keywords: Ethical climate, Validation, Confirmatory factor analysis, Educational Context
The present study focuses on studying the psychometric properties of Ethical Climate Questionnaire (ECQ) in Saudi educational milieu. It is a cross-sectional study and the data was collected from 309 educational supervisors from six educational offices of General Department of Education in Jeddah. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was carried out to study the psychometric properties of the EC scale. Kuder Richardson's Cronbach's coefficient 'α’ was used to assess the reliability of the nine dimensions of the EC scale. Findings of the study revealed that nine dimensions of the EC scale had a good model fit. Hence, it is suggested that EC scale is valid and reliable for use within the educational context in Saudi Arabia. This study also compares the findings of the current study with previous findings. Results of the present study will provide much-needed impetus for future research in EC particularly, within the educational organizations throughout Saudi Arabia and generally in other Arab countries of the region.
- Agarwal, J., & Malloy, D.C. (1999). Ethical work climate dimensions in a nonprofit organization: an empirical study. Journal of Business Ethics, 20(1), 1-14.
- Ambrose, M.L., Arnaud, A., & Schminke, M. (2008). Individual moral development and ethical climate: The influence of person-organization fit on job attitudes. Journal of Business Ethics, 77, 323-333
- Barnett, T., & Schubert, E. (2002). Perceptions of the ethical work climate and covenantal relationship. Journal of Business Ethics, 36(3), 279-290.
- Barnett, T., & Vaicys, C. (2000). The moderating effect of individuals’ perceptions of ethical work climate on ethical judgments and behavioral intentions. Journal of Business Ethics, 27(4), 351-362.
- Bentler, P.M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107 (2), 238-46.
- Brower, H.H., & Shrader, C.B. (2002). Moral reasoning and ethical climate: Not for-profit vs. for-profit boards of directors. Journal of Business Ethics, 26, 147-167.
- Cullen, J. B., Parboteeah, K., & Victor, B. (2003). The effects of ethical climates on organizational commitment: A two-study analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 46, 127-141.
- Cullen, J. B., Victor, B., & Bronson, J. W. (1993). The ethical climate questionnaire: An assessment of its development and validity. Psychological Reports, 73, 667-674.
- Cullen, J. B., Victor, B. & Stephens, C. (1989). An ethical weather report: Assessing the organization's ethical climate. Organizational Dynamics, 18(2), 50-62.
- Deal, T.E. and Kennedy, A.A. (1982). Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
- Delattre, E., & Russell, W. (1993). Schooling, moral principles, and the formation of character. Journal of Education, 175(2), 23-43.
- Denison, D. R. (1996). What is the difference between organizational culture and organizational Climate? A native's point of view on a decade of paradigm wars.The Academy of Management Review, 21(3), 619-654.
- Deshpande, S. P. (1996). The impact of ethical climate types on facets of job satisfaction: An empirical investigation. Journal of Business Ethics, 15, 655-660.
- Deshpande, S.P., George, E., & Joseph, J. (2000). Ethical climates and managerial success in Russian organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 23(2), 211-217.
- Farrell, B., Cobbin, D.M and Farrell, H. (2002). Codes of ethics: Their evolution, development and other controversies, Journal of Management Development, 21(2), 152-163.
- Fritzsche, D. J. (2000). Ethical Climates and the Ethical Dimension of Decision Making. Journal of Business Ethics, 24, 125-140.
- Grobler A. (2016). An adapted measure of ethical climate in organizations – a South African study. African Journal of Business Ethics,10 (2),1-20
- Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Balin, B. j., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis. New York: Maxwell Macmillan International Editions.
- Hegarty, H. W., Sims, H. P. (1979). Organizational philosophy, policies and objectives related to unethical behavior: a laboratory experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 3, 331-338.
- Higgins, A. (1995). Teaching as a moral activity: Listening to teachers in Russia and the United States. Journal of Moral Education, 24(2), 143-158.
- Hinkin, T. R., Tracey, J. B., & Enz, C. A. (1997). Scale construction: Developing reliable and valid measurement instruments. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 21(1), 100–121.
- Hooper, D., Coughlan, J. and Mullen, M. R (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods Volume 6 (1), 53 - 60, available online at www.ejbrm.com
- Hu, L.T. and Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6 (1), 1-55
- Ingersoll, R. M. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 499-534.
- Ingersoll, R. M. (2004). Four myths about America’s teacher quality problem. In M. A. Smylie & D. Miretzky (Eds.), Developing the teacher workforce (pp. 1-33). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Johnsrud, L. K., & Rosser, V. J. (2002). Faculty members’ moral and their intention to leave. Journal of Higher Education, 73(4), 518-542.
- Jöreskog, K. and Sörbom, D. (1996). LISREL 8: User’s Reference Guide. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International Inc.
- Kelley, P. C., & Chang, P. L. (2017). A typology of university ethical lapses: Types, levels of seriousness, and originating location, The Journal of Higher Education, 78(4), 402–429.
- Kohlberg, L. (1984). The Psychology of Moral Development. San Francisco: Harper & Row.
- LeClair, D. T., Clark, R., Ferrell, L., Joseph, G., & LeClair, D. (1999). Ethics in international business education: Perspectives from five business disciplines, Journal of Teaching in International Business, 11(1), 42–71.
- Lishchinsky, O. S., & Rosenblatt, Z. (2009). Organizational ethics and teachers’ intent to leave: An integrative approach. Educational Administration Quarterly, 45(5), 725–758.
- MacCallum, R.C., Browne, M.W., and Sugawara, H., M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods,1 (2), 130-49.
- Malloy, D.C., & Agarwal, J. (2003). Factors influencing ethical climate in a nonprofit organization: An empirical investigation. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 8(3), 224-250.
- Moore, G. (2006). Managing ethics in higher education: Implementing a code or embedding virtue? Business Ethics: a European review, 15(4), 407–418.
- Moran, E.T., & Volkwein, J.F. (1992). The cultural approach to the formation of organizational climate. Human Relations, 45, 19-47.
- Nelson, D. L., & Quick, J. C. (2009). Organizational Behavior: Science, the Real World, and You. Mason, OH: Southwestern Cengage Learning
- Noddings, N. (1992). The challenge to care in schools: An alternative approach to education. New York: Teachers College Press.
- Norton, M. S. (1999). Teacher retention: Reducing costly teacher turnover. Contemporary Education, 70(3), 52-108.
- Nunnally, J.C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.).New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Ogbeide, E. D. O., Ugbo, P. O., & Nkenne, C. O. (2018). Relationship between school ethical climate and job performance among teachers of private secondary schools in akute agbola area of Ogun state, south-west Nigeria. Online Journal of Arts, Management and Social Sciences, 3(1), 15–26.
- Peterson, D. K. (2002a). Deviant workplace behavior and the organization's ethical climate. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17(1), 47-61.
- Peterson, D. K. (2002b). The relationship between unethical behavior and the dimensions of the ethical climate questionnaire. Journal of Business Ethics, 41, 313-326.
- Putranta, M. P. (2008). The relationships between ethical climates, ethical ideology, and organizational commitment (Dissertation). University of Notre Dame, Australia.
- Rasmussen, K., Malloy, D., & Agarwal, J. (2003). The ethical climate of government and non-profit organizations. Public Management Review, 5(1), 83-97.
- Schein, E. H. (1985). Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Schneider, B. (1975). Organizational climate: An essay. Personnel Psychology, 28, 447-449.
- Sergiovanni, T. J. (1996). Leadership for the schoolhouse: How is it different? Why is it important? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Smylie, M., & Miretzky, D. (2004). Developing the teacher workforce. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Starratt, R. J. (1991). Building an ethical school: A theory for practice in educational leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 27, 185-202.
- Steiger, J.H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25, 214-12
- Steiger, J.H. (2007). Understanding the limitations of global fit assessment in structural equation modeling. Personality and Individual Differences, 42 (5), 893-98.
- Stohs, J. H. & Brannick, T. (1999). Codes and conduct: predictors of Irish manager’s ethical reasoning, Journal of Business Ethics, 22(4), 311-326.
- Tirri, K. (1999). Teachers’ perceptions of moral dilemmas at school. Journal of Moral Education, 28(1), 31-47
- Vaicys, C., Barnett, T., & Brown, G. (1996). An Analysis of the Factor Structure of the Ethical Climate Questionnaire. Psychological Reports, 79, pp.115-120.
- Van Maanen, M. (1995). On the epistemology of reflective practice. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 1(1), 33-50.
- VanSandt, C. V. (2001). An examination of the relationship between ethical work climate and moral awareness (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Retrieved April 13, 2004, from
- Vardi, Y. (2001). The effect of organizational and ethical climates on misconduct at work. Journal of Business Ethics, 29(4), 327-337.
- Victor, B., & Cullen, J. B. (1987). A theory and measure of ethical climate in organizations. Research in Corporate Social Performance and Policy, 9, 51-71.
- Victor, B., & Cullen, J. B. (1988). The organizational bases of ethical work climates. Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 101-125.
- Webber, S. (2007). Ethical climate typology and questionnaire: A discussion of instrument modifications. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 33, 567-580.
- Weeks, W. A., Nantel, J. (1992). Corporate codes of ethics and sales forces behavior: A case study. Journal of Business Ethics, 11, 753-760.
- Wimbush, J.C., Shepard, J.M., & Markham, J. (1997). An empirical examination of the multi-dimensionality of ethical climate in organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(1), 67-77.
- Yener, M., Yaldiran, M., Ergun, S. (2012) The effect of ethical climate on work engagement, Procedia–Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58, 724–733.