Education Quarterly Reviews
Published: 25 August 2022
Development of the Physical Activity Plan for Physical Education Instruction in Public Senior High Schools: An Exploratory Sequential Mixed Method Inquiry
Rexomar D. Perez, Ma. Elena Y. Doruelo, Dennis V. Madrigal
Victorias National High School, Carlos Hilado Memorial State University, University of Negros Occidental Recoletos
Download Full-Text Pdf
Keywords: Education, Physical Education, Physical Activity Plan, Senior High School, Philippines
Physical education (PE) develops students’ motor skills, knowledge, and behaviors for active living. As such, individuals need to participate in various physical activities (PA) which contribute to a healthy lifestyle. But many PE programs fail to bring the actual value of a lifetime PA and fitness. Therefore, there should be extended scientific research that promotes participation level as a health intervention that will promote health and wellness. Through this, an exploratory- sequential mixed method inquiry was utilized to gather insights of senior high school PE teachers towards the development of physical activity plan (PAP). Likewise, the remaining senior high school PE teachers in the province assessed the degree of alignment of the PAP in the most essential learning competencies in PE, and the degree of the practical application of the developed PAP in PE instruction. The qualitative results summarized the general ideas of PE teachers regarding the PAP. They have specific suggestions on what topics, PA, and classroom assessment tools should be included in the plan related to the competencies in PE 1, PE 2, PE 3, and PE 4. As such, a series of performance rubrics have been attached to the plan. Moreover, the quantitative results revealed that the developed PAP has a high degree of alignment with the current competencies in the senior high school PE curriculum. Likewise, the developed PAP has a high degree of practical application in PE instruction. Integrating the data in the two phases of the data collection, showed that the developed PAP can be implemented in the senior high school PE curriculum. As such, the PAP may be utilized as the baseline for PE teachers for implementation. Moreover, future researchers may address the limitations of the conducted study.
Aguinaldo, J. C. (2021). Challenges encountered by physical education teachers in online learning.
Ahmed, M. D., Ho, W. K. Y., Van Niekerk, R. L., Morris, T., Elayaraja, M., Lee, K. C., & Randles, E. (2017). The self-esteem, goal orientation, and health-related physical fitness of active and inactive adolescent students. Cogent Psychology, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311908.2017.1331602
Akkararatsakul, P., & Makpa, P. (2020). The creation of folk-dance performance for exercise in the elderly with the risk of osteoarthritis.
Alvarez-Bueno, C., Pesce, C., Cavero-Redondo, I., Sánchez-López, M., Garrido-Miguel, M., & Martinez-Vizcaino, V. (2017). Academic achievement and physical activity: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 140(6). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-1498
An, R. (2020). Projecting the impact of the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic on childhood obesity in the United States: A microsimulation model. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 9(4), 302-312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2020.05.006.
Aro, A. A., Agbo, S., & Omole, O. B. (2018). Factors influencing regular physical exercise among the elderly in residential care facilities in a South African health district. African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine, 10(1), 1-6. https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC-ef50162b2
Asiimwe, I., Babalola, J. F., & Atuhaire, S. (2021). Physical activities, resources, and challenges in the implementation of physical education program in public primary schools in Kampala, Uganda: A cross-sectional survey.
Auerbach, A. J., Higgins, M., Brickman, P., & Andrews, T. C. (2018). Teacher knowledge for active-learning instruction: Expert–novice comparison reveals differences. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.17-07-0149
Basoglu, U. D. (2018). The importance of physical literacy for physical education and recreation. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 6(4), 139-142. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1174368
Behzadnia, B., Adachi, P. J., Deci, E. L., & Mohammadzadeh, H. (2018). Associations between students' perceptions of physical education teachers' interpersonal styles and students' wellness, knowledge, performance, and intentions to persist at physical activity: A self-determination theory approach. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 39, 10-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.07.003
Black, N., Johnston, D. W., Propper, C., & Shields, M. A. (2019). The effect of school sports facilities on physical activity, health and socioeconomic status in adulthood. Social Science and Medicine, 220, 120-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.10.025
Borena, Y. G., Shidaram, H. S., & Ibrahim, Y. (2019). The nexus between accessibility to physical activity resources and participation in leisure-time physical activities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. environment (McCormack et al., 2004; Cerin et al. 2010; Sallis et al. 2008 & 2009), 10(3), 17-18.
Borghese, M. M., & Janssen, I. (2019). Duration and intensity of different types of physical activity among children aged 10–13 years. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 110(2), 178-186. https://doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0157-z
Bull, F. C., Al-Ansari, S. S., Biddle, S., Borodulin, K., Buman, M. P., Cardon, G., Carty, C., Chaput, J. P., Chastin, S., Chou, R., Dempsy P., DiPietro, L., Ekelund, U., Firth, J., Friedenreich, C. M., Garcia, L., Gichu, M., Jago, R., Katzmarzyk, P. T., Lambert, E., Leiztmann, M., Milton, K., Ortega, F. B., Ranasinghe, C., Stamatakis, E., Tiedemann, A., Troiano, R. P., Van der Ploeg, H. P., Wari, V., & Willumsen, J. F. (2020). World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 54(24), 1451-1462. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-102955
Care, E., Kim, H., Vista, A., & Anderson, K. (2018). Education System Alignment for 21st Century Skills: Focus on Assessment. Center for Universal Education at The Brookings Institution. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED592779
Carl, J., Sudeck, G., & Pfeifer, K. (2020). Competencies for a healthy physically active lifestyle—reflections on the model of physical activity-related health competence. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 17(7), 688-697.
Carroll, P., Harrison, M., Richardson, N., Robertson, S., Keohane, A., Kelly, L., & Donohoe, A. (2018). Evaluation of a gender-sensitive physical activity programme for inactive men in Ireland: Protocol paper for a pragmatic controlled trial. Journal of Physical Activity Research, 3(1), 20-27. https://doi.org/10.12691/jpar-3-1-4
Carter, W. M., Morse, W. C., Brock, R. W., & Struempler, B. (2019). Peer Reviewed: Improving physical activity and outdoor recreation in rural Alabama through community coalitions. Preventing Chronic Disease, 16. https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd16.190062
Coumans, J. M., Oenema, A., Bolman, C. A., & Lechner, L. (2021). Use and appreciation of a web-based, computer-tailored diet and physical activity intervention based on the self-determination theory: Evaluation study of process and predictors. JMIR Formative Research, 5(12). https://doi.org/10.2196/22390
Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method approaches (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.
Cruz, A. B., Kim, M., & Kim, H. D. (2021). Physical education attitude of adolescent students in the Philippines: Importance of curriculum and teacher sex and behaviors. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.658599
Currier, D., Lindner, R., Spittal, M. J., Cvetkovski, S., Pirkis, J., & English, D. R. (2020). Physical activity and depression in men: Increased activity duration and intensity associated with lower likelihood of current depression. Journal of affective disorders, 260, 426-431. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.09.061
Daniel, S. J. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects, 49(1), 91-96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-020-09464-3
De Meester, A., Barnett, L. M., Brian, A., Bowe, S. J., Jiménez-Díaz, J., Van Duyse, F., Megan Irwin, J., Stodden, D., D’Hont, E., Lenoir, M., & Haerens, L. (2020). The relationship between actual and perceived motor competence in children, adolescents and young adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 50(11), 2001-2049. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-020-01336-2
D'elia, F. (2019). The training of physical education teachers in primary school. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2019.14.Proc1.12
D'Elia, F., Mazzeo, F., & Raiola, G. (2018). The core curriculum in the university training of the teacher of physical education in Italy. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2018.13.Proc2.25
Department of Education (DepEd). (2016). K to 12 curriculum guide physical education. https://www.deped.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/PE-CG.pdf
Department of Education (DepEd). (2020). Official statement. https://www.deped.gov.ph/2020/05/06/official-statement-2/
Department of Education (DepEd). (2021). Most Essential Learning Competencies (MELCS) audit for the
Ding, D., Varela, A. R., Bauman, A. E., Ekelund, U., Lee, I. M., Heath, G., Katzmarzyk, P. T., Reis, R., & Pratt, M. (2020). Towards better evidence-informed global action: Lessons learned from the Lancet series and recent developments in physical activity and public health. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 54(8), 462-468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2019-101001
Do, J. W. (2020). An investigation of design constraints in the process of converting face-to-face course into online course. Journal of Education & Culture, 153-173.
Doe-Asinyo, R. X., & Smits-Engelsman, B. C. (2021). Ecological validity of the PERF-FIT: Correlates of active play, motor performance and motor skill-related physical fitness. Heliyon, 7(8). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07901
Dunton, G. F., Do, B., & Wang, S. D. (2020). Early effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity and sedentary behavior in children living in the US. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09429-3.
Egan, C. A., Webster, C. A., Stewart, G. L., Weaver, R. G., Russ, L. B., Brian, A., & Stodden, D. F. (2019). Case study of a health optimizing physical education-based comprehensive school physical activity program. Evaluation and program planning, 72, 106-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2018.10.006
Emmanouilidis, S., Hackney, M. E., Slade, S. C., Heng, H., Jazayeri, D., & Morris, M. E. (2021). Dance Is an Accessible Physical Activity for People with Parkinson’s Disease. Parkinson’s Disease, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/7516504
Engel, A. C., Broderick, C. R., van Doorn, N., Hardy, L. L., & Parmenter, B. J. (2018). Exploring the relationship between fundamental motor skill interventions and physical activity levels in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 48(8), 1845-1857. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0923-3
Estevan, I., & Barnett, L. M. (2018). Considerations related to the definition, measurement and analysis of perceived motor competence. Sports Medicine, 48(12), 2685-2694. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0940-2
Ferkel, R. C., Razon, S., Judge, L. W., & True, L. (2017). Beyond “fun”: The real need in physical education. The Physical Educator, 74(2). https://doi.org/10.18666/TPE-2017-V74-I2-7426
Ferkel, R. C., Stodden, D. F., & Fisher, K. M. (2019). Differences between student outcomes in high school physical education: Fitness education curriculum vs. sport-based curriculum.
Fong Yan, A., Cobley, S., Chan, C., Pappas, E., Nicholson, L. L., Ward, R. E., Murdoch, R. E., Gu, Y., Trevor, B. L., Vassallo, A. J., Wewege, M. A., & Hiller, C. E. (2018). The effectiveness of dance interventions on physical health outcomes compared to other forms of physical activity: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 48(4), 933-951. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0853-5
Good, C. V., & Scates, D. E. (1954). Methods of research: Educational, psychological, sociological. https://doi.org/10.1037/13206-000.
Gråstén, A., Huhtiniemi, M., Hakonen, H., & Jaakkola, T. (2021). Development of accelerometer‐based light to vigorous physical activity in fitness profiles of school‐aged children. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 31(12), 2343-2355. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.14056
Greco, G., Cataldi, S., & Fischetti, F. (2019). Effectiveness of a short after-school intervention on physical fitness in school-aged children. Ricerche di Pedagogia e Didattica. Journal of Theories and Research in Education, 14(1), 143-164. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.1970-2221/9217
Griban, G., Коbernyk, O., Shkola, O., Dikhtiarenko, Z., & Mychka, I. (2020). Formation of health and fitness competencies of students in the process of physical education.
Hagger, M. S. (2019). Habit and physical activity: Theoretical advances, practical implications, and agenda for future research. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 42, 118-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.12.007
Haible, S., Volk, C., Demetriou, Y., Höner, O., Thiel, A., Trautwein, U., & Sudeck, G. (2019). Promotion of physical activity-related health competence in physical education: study protocol for the GEKOS cluster randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6686-4
Haible, S., Volk, C., Demetriou, Y., Höner, O., Thiel, A., & Sudeck, G. (2020). Physical activity-related health competence, physical activity, and physical fitness: Analysis of control competence for the self-directed exercise of adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(1), 39. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010039
Halaidiuk, M., Maksymchuk, B., Khurtenko, O., Zuma, I., Korytko, Z., Andrieieva, R., Strykalenko, Y., Zhosan, I., Syvokhop, Y., Shkola, O., Fomenko, O., & Maksymchuk, I. (2018). Teaching approaches in extracurricular physical activities for 12-14-year-old pupils under environmentally unfavourable conditions. Journal of Physical Education and Sport. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2018.04344
Hammami, A., Harrabi, B., Mohr, M., & Krustrup, P. (2022). Physical activity and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Specific recommendations for home-based physical training. Managing Sport and Leisure, 27(1-2), 26-31. https://doi.org/10.1080/23750472.2020.1757494
Harvey, S., Gil-Arias, A., & Claver, F. (2020). Effects of teaching games for understanding on tactical knowledge development in middle school physical education. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 20(3), 1369-1379. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2020.03189
Hollar, D., May, K., & Colman, A. (2019). Parks and recreation: centers for eating and physical activity behavior interventions. In Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity (pp. 277-285). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812840-4.00022-0
Holt, A. D., Smedegaard, S., Pawlowski, C. S., Skovgaard, T., & Christiansen, L. B. (2019). Pupils’ experiences of autonomy, competence and relatedness in ‘Move for Well-being in Schools’: A physical activity intervention. European Physical Education Review, 25(3), 640-658. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X18758353
Howie, E. K., Schatz, J., & Pate, R. R. (2015). Acute effects of classroom exercise breaks on executive function and math performance: A dose–response study. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 86(3), 217-224. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2015.1039892
Hsia, L. H., & Sung, H. Y. (2020). Effects of a mobile technology-supported peer assessment approach on students' learning motivation and perceptions in a college flipped dance class. International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organization, 14(1), 99-113.
Hyndman, B. P., & Wyver, S. (2020). Outdoor recreation within the school setting: A physiological and psychological exploration. In Outdoor Recreation-Physiological and Psychological Effects on Health. IntechOpen.
Jakicic, J. M., Kraus, W. E., Powell, K. E., Campbell, W. W., Janz, K. F., Troiano, R. P., Sprow, K., Torres, A., & Piercy, K., & 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. (2019). Association between bout duration of physical activity and health: systematic review. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 51(6), 1213. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001933
Jeong, H. C., & So, W. Y. (2020). Difficulties of online physical education classes in middle and high school and an efficient operation plan to address them. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(19), 7279. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197279
Kassing, G., & Jay, D. M. (2020). Dance teaching methods and curriculum design: comprehensive K-12 dance education. Human Kinetics Publishers.
Keller, J., Fleig, L., Hohl, D. H., Wiedemann, A. U., Burkert, S., Luszczynska, A., & Knoll, N. (2017). Which characteristics of planning matter? Individual and dyadic physical activity plans and their effects on plan enactment. Social Science and Medicine, 189, 53-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.07.025
Kim, M. S., & Cardinal, B. J. (2019). Differences in university students’ motivation between a required and an elective physical activity education policy. Journal of American College Health, 67(3), 207-214. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2018.1469501
Kim, I., Ward, P., Sinelnikov, O., Ko, B., Iserbyt, P., Li, W., & Curtner-Smith, M. (2018). The influence of content knowledge on pedagogical content knowledge: An evidence-based practice for physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 37(2), 133-143. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2017-016
Kim, M., Yu, H., Park, C. W., Ha, T., & Baek, J. H. (2021). Physical education teachers' online teaching experiences and perceptions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 21, 2049-2056. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2021.s3261
Kirk, D. (2017). Health related fitness as an innovation in the physical education curriculum. In Physical Education, Sport and Schooling (pp. 167-181). Routledge.
Laar, R. A., Ashraf, M. A., Ning, J., Ji, P., Fang, P., Yu, T., & Khan, M. N. (2021). Performance, health, and psychological challenges faced by students of physical education in online learning during COVID-19 epidemic: A qualitative Study in China. In Healthcare (Vol. 9, No. 8, p. 1030). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9081030
Latino, F., Greco, G., Fischetti, F., & Cataldi, S. (2019). Multilateral training improves body image perception in female adolescents. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2019.14.Proc4.55
Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel psychology, 28(4), 563-575.
Leuciuc, F. (2019). Effect of a one-semester conditioning activities on physical fitness of the students. Revista Românească pentru Educaţie Multidimensională, 11(4), 136-146.
Li, N. (2019a). Informatization teaching of optional courses of physical education in colleges and universities. In International Conference on Applications and Techniques in Cyber Security and Intelligence(pp. 1675-1679). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-25128-4_212
Li, N. (2019b). Reform of Dance curriculum for preschool education in colleges and universities. In 2nd International Conference on Contemporary Education, Social Sciences and Ecological Studies (CESSES 2019)(pp. 655-660). Atlantis Press.
Lichtman, M. (2013). Qualitative research for the social sciences. Sage publications.
Lin, Y. N., Hsia, L. H., Sung, M. Y., & Hwang, G. H. (2019). Effects of integrating mobile technology-assisted peer assessment into flipped learning on students’ dance skills and self-efficacy. Interactive Learning Environments, 27(8), 995-1010. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2018.1461115
Lippi, G., Henry, B. M., & Sanchis-Gomar, F. (2020). Physical inactivity and cardiovascular disease at the time of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 27(9), 906-908. https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487320916823
Liu, T., Wilczyńska, D., Lipowski, M., & Zhao, Z. (2021). Optimization of a sports activity development model using artificial intelligence under new curriculum reform. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(17), 9049. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179049
Liu, W. (2019). Key laboratory of adolescent health assessment and exercise intervention of ministry of education, East China Normal University, China. In The 24th EASESS Annual Congress (p. 33).
Liu, Z., Kemperman, A., & Timmermans, H. (2020). Correlates of older adults’ walking trip duration. Journal of Transport and Health, 18, 100889. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2020.100889
Lorenz, K. A. (2018). Physical education within a comprehensive school physical activity program. Texas Education Review, 6(2), 38-49. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1291049
Mackenzie, S. H., Son, J. S., & Eitel, K. (2018). Using outdoor adventure to enhance intrinsic motivation and engagement in science and physical activity: An exploratory study. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 21, 76-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jort.2018.01.008
Malm, C., Jakobsson, J., & Isaksson, A. (2019). Physical activity and sports—real health benefits: a review with insight into the public health of Sweden. Sports, 7(5), 127. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7050127
Mandigo, J., Lodewyk, K., & Tredway, J. (2019). Examining the impact of a teaching games for understanding approach on the development of physical literacy using the passport for life assessment tool. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 38(2), 136-145. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2018-0028
Martin, A., Booth, J. N., Laird, Y., Sproule, J., Reilly, J. J., & Saunders, D. H. (2018). Physical activity, diet and other behavioural interventions for improving cognition and school achievement in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (1). https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009728.pub3
Mercier, K., Centeio, E., Garn, A., Erwin, H., Marttinen, R., & Foley, J. (2021). Physical education teachers’ experiences with remote instruction during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 40(2), 337-342. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2020-0272
Miller, A., Eather, N., Duncan, M., & Lubans, D. R. (2019). Associations of object control motor skill proficiency, game play competence, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness among primary school children. Journal of Sports Sciences, 37(2), 173-179. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2018.1488384
Mineshita, Y., Kim, H. K., Chijiki, H., Nanba, T., Shinto, T., Furuhashi, S., Oneda, S., Kuwahara, M., Suwama, A., & Shibata, S. (2021). Screen time duration and timing: Effects on obesity, physical activity, dry eyes, and learning ability in elementary school children. BMC Public Health, 21(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10484-7
Musumeci, G. (2021). The kinesiologist like a tailor: The art of making a tailor-made physical activity plan. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology, 6(3), 76. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6030076
Nathan, N., Elton, B., Babic, M., McCarthy, N., Sutherland, R., Presseau, J., Seward, K., Hodder, R., Booth, D., Yoong, S. L., & Wolfenden, L. (2018). Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of physical activity policies in schools: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine, 107, 45-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.11.012
Newsome, A. N., Gilliard, T., Phillips, A., & Dedrick, R. (2021). Understanding the perceptions of sedentary college students’ engagement in physical activity: Application of the theory of planned behavior. Journal of American College Health, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2021.1998069
Niu, J. (2017). The present situation and the development research of sports teaching in China's colleges and universities. In International Conference on Advanced Education, Psychology and Sports Science (Vol. 133).
Nordh, H., Vistad, O. I., Skår, M., Wold, L. C., & Bærum, K. M. (2017). Walking as urban outdoor recreation: Public health for everyone. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 20, 60-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jort.2017.09.005
Norris, E., van Steen, T., Direito, A., & Stamatakis, E. (2020). Physically active lessons in schools and their impact on physical activity, educational, health and cognition outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 54(14), 826-838. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2018-100502
O’Brien, W., Adamakis, M., O’Brien, N., Onofre, M., Martins, J., Dania, A., Makopoulou, K., Herold, F., Ng, K., & Costa, J. (2020). Implications for European Physical Education Teacher Education during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-institutional SWOT analysis. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(4), 503-522. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2020.1823963
O’Connor, J., & Penney, D. (2021). Informal sport and curriculum futures: An investigation of the knowledge, skills and understandings for participation and the possibilities for physical education. European Physical Education Review, 27(1), 3-26. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X20915937
Ogunleye, B. O., & Ojo, O. R. (2019). Impact of physical fitness activities on students’ basic science achievement in selected Nigerian secondary schools. http://dspace.tu-varna.bg/handle/123456789/116
Ojha, P., & Vinay, D. (2018). Assessment of physical fitness and postural discomfort among assembly workers. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 7(1), 1812-1814.
Oosterhoff, B., Kaplow, J. B., Wray-Lake, L., & Gallagher, K. (2017). Activity-specific pathways among duration of organized activity involvement, social support, and adolescent well-being: Findings from a nationally representative sample. Journal of Adolescence, 60, 83-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2017.07.012
Pedersen, B. K., & Saltin, B. (2015). Exercise as medicine–evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in 26 different chronic diseases. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 25, 1-72. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12581
Pereira, P., Santos, F., & Marinho, D. A. (2020). Examining Portuguese high school students’ attitudes toward physical education. Frontiers in Psychology, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.604556
Phillips, D., Hannon, J. C., & Castelli, D. M. (2015). Effects of vigorous intensity physical activity on mathematics test performance. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 34(3), 346-362. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2014-0030
Perry, A. C., Cruz, N., Flanagan, E. W., Velasquez, C., & Zito, C. (2020). A pilot study of physical fitness/literacy in the middle school curriculum using an active learning paradigm: The THINK Program. International Journal of Research in Health Sciences, 8(1), 3-7.
Piercy, K. L., Troiano, R. P., Ballard, R. M., Carlson, S. A., Fulton, J. E., Galuska, D. A., George, S. M., & Olson, R. D. (2018). The physical activity guidelines for Americans. Jama, 320(19), 2020-2028. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.14854
Pinotti, G. (2021). Equal education for all? Equity issues impacting physical education and physical activity during COVID-19 pandemic. https://digitalcommons.csumb.edu/caps_thes_all/1056
Richards, K. A. R., Ivy, V. N., Wright, P. M., & Jerris, E. (2019). Combining the skill themes approach with teaching personal and social responsibility to teach social and emotional learning in elementary physical education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 90(3), 35-44. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2018.1559665
Riso, E. M., & Jürimäe, J. (2018). Physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep duration and well-being among Estonian schoolchildren: a thematic review. Handbook of Leisure, Physical Activity, Sports, Recreation and Quality of Life, 365-391. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75529-8_21
Rogers, L. Q., Carter, S. J., Williams, G., & Courneya, K. S. (2018). Physical activity. In Handbook of Cancer Survivorship (pp. 287-307). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-77432-9_15
Santana, C. C. D. A., Azevedo, L. B. D., Cattuzzo, M. T., Hill, J. O., Andrade, L. P., & Prado, W. L. D. (2017). Physical fitness and academic performance in youth: A systematic review. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 27(6), 579-603. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12773
Saint‐Maurice, P. F., Troiano, R. P., Matthews, C. E., & Kraus, W. E. (2018). Moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity and all‐cause mortality: do bouts matter? Journal of the American Heart Association, 7(6). https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.007678
Schroeder, K., Ratcliffe, S. J., Perez, A., Earley, D., Bowman, C., & Lipman, T. H. (2017). Dance for health: an intergenerational program to increase access to physical activity. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 37, 29-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2017.07.004
Sgrò, F., Quinto, A., Messana, L., Pignato, S., & Lipoma, M. (2017). Assessment of gross motor developmental level in Italian primary school children. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17(3), 1954-1959. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2017.03192
Shilcutt, J. B., & Oliver, K. L. (2021). Getting ‘more and more comfortable’: using an Activist Approach in a dance PE content course. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy,1-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2021.1990247
Singh, A. S., Saliasi, E., Van Den Berg, V., Uijtdewilligen, L., De Groot, R. H., Jolles, J., Anderson, L. B., Bailey, R., Chang, Y. K., Diamond, A., Ericsson, I., Etnier, J. L., Fedewa, A. L, Hillman, C. H., McMorris, T., Pesce, C., Puhse, U., Tomporowski, P. D., & Chinapaw, M. J. (2019). Effects of physical activity interventions on cognitive and academic performance in children and adolescents: A novel combination of a systematic review and recommendations from an expert panel. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 53(10), 640-647. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-098136
Society of Health and Physical Educators (SHAPE) America. (2018). Guidelines for K–12 online physical
Sprengeler, O. L. E., Buck, C., Hebestreit, A., Wirsik, N., & Ahrens, W. (2019). Sports contribute to total moderate to vigorous physical activity in school children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 51(8), 1653. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001948
Stewart, O. T., Moudon, A. V., Littman, A. J., Seto, E., & Saelens, B. E. (2018). The association between park facilities and duration of physical activity during active park visits. Journal of Urban Health, 95(6), 869-880. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-018-0311-1
Sum, K. W. R., Wallhead, T., Ha, S. C. A., & Sit, H. P. C. (2018). Effects of physical education continuing professional development on teachers’ physical literacy and self-efficacy and students’ learning outcomes. International Journal of Educational Research, 88, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2018.01.001
Tanucan, J. C. M., Hernani, M. R. A., & Diano, F. J. (2021). Filipino physical education teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge on remote digital teaching. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 11(9), 416-423.
Tarp, J., Child, A., White, T., Westgate, K., Bugge, A., Grøntved, A., Wedderkopp, N., Andersen, L. B., Cardon, G., Davey, R., Janz, K. F., Kriemler, S., Northstone, K., Page, A. S., Puder, J. J., Reilly, J. J., Sardinha, L. B., van Sluijs, E. M., Ekelund, U., Wijndaele, K., & Brage, S. (2018). Physical activity intensity, bout-duration, and cardiometabolic risk markers in children and adolescents. International journal of Obesity, 42(9), 1639-1650. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41366-018-0152-8
Theis, N., Campbell, N., De Leeuw, J., Owen, M., & Schenke, K. C. (2021). The effects of COVID-19 restrictions on physical activity and mental health of children and young adults with physical and/or intellectual disabilities. Disability and Health Journal, 14(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2021.101064
Vilchez, J. A., Kruse, J., Puffer, M., & Dudovitz, R. N. (2021). Teachers and school health leaders' perspectives on distance learning physical education during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Journal of School Health, 91(7), 541-549. https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.13030
Vinu, W. (2019). Assessment of Sports, Yoga with Mind Training and Sports, Yoga Training on Students with Cigarette Addiction. Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development, 10(5).
Wang, H., Dai, X., Wu, J., Wu, X., & Nie, X. (2019). Influence of urban green open space on residents’ physical activity in China. BMC public health, 19(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7416-7
Wang, R. (2017). Research on physical education problems and management reform of Chinese colleges and universities. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(10), 7057-7069. https://doi.org/10.12973/ejmste/78730
Weaver, R. G., Webster, C. A., Beets, M. W., Brazendale, K., Chandler, J., Schisler, L., & Aziz, M. (2018). Initial outcomes of a participatory-based, competency-building approach to increasing physical education teachers’ physical activity promotion and students’ physical activity: A pilot study. Health Education and Behavior, 45(3), 359-370. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198117731600
Webster, C. A., D’Agostino, E., Urtel, M., McMullen, J., Culp, B., Loiacono, C. A. E., & Killian, C. (2021). Physical education in the COVID era: Considerations for online program delivery using the comprehensive school physical activity program framework. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 40(2), 327-336. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2020-0182
Whitfield, G. P., Carlson, S. A., Ussery, E. N., Fulton, J. E., Galuska, D. A., & Petersen,
R. (2019). Trends in meeting physical activity guidelines among urban and rural-dwelling adults—United States, 2008–2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 68(23), 513. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6823a1
World Health Organization (WHO). (2019). NCD risk factors: Insufficient Physical Activity.https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/themes/topics/indicator-groups/indicator-group-details/GHO/insufficient-physical-activity
Wu, C., Xu, Y., Chen, Z., Cao, Y., Yu, K., & Huang, C. (2021). The effect of intensity, frequency, duration and volume of physical activity in children and adolescents on skeletal muscle fitness: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(18), 9640. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189640
Xiang, M., Zhang, Z., & Kuwahara, K. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on children and adolescents' lifestyle behavior larger than expected. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 63(4), 531. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2020.04.013
Xu, Z., Lin, J., & Xia, S. (2021). Improving quality physical education: Conceptual and practical framework, and barriers to its global implementation. Beijing International Review of Education, 3(2), 296-320.
Yetti, E., Syarah, E. S., Pramitasari, M., Iasha, V., & Setiawan, B. (2021). The influence of dance instructional strategy and teacher's pedagogy competence on classroom climate. Ilkogretim Online, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.17051/ilkonline.2021.01.54
Yoonkyung, L., & Mihye, C. (2019). A study on the re-structuralization of competency-based specialized dance curriculum in Korea. Journal of Curriculum Evaluation, 22(2), 155-184. https://doi.org/10.29221/jce.2019.22.2.155
Zhamardiy, V., Griban, G., & Shkola, O. (2020). Methodical system of using fitness technologies in physical education of students.