Education Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2621-5799

Published: 10 August 2019

Early Childhood Education Teachers' Perceptions on the Use of Play as a Teaching Technique in Afadjato South District of the Volta Region, Ghana

Divine Koku Kekesi, Simon Kormla Donkor, Moses Torkonyo

St. Teresa's College of Education, University of Education, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Jasikan College of Education

pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf


Pages: 504-516

Keywords: Early Childhood Education, Teachers, Ghana


The study investigated the perception of early childhood educators on the use of play as a teaching technique in the Afadjato South District. The study was a cross-sectional descriptive design using concurrent triangulation mixed method approach. A sample of 120 participants was used comprising100 kindergarten teachers, 10 basic school heads and 10 school supervisors. Purposive, simple random and convenience sampling techniques were used to select the participants. Questionnaire and interview guide were used to collect data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the quantitative data while thematic analysis was used for the qualitative data. The findings showed that early childhood teachers in Afadjato South District had positive perception on the use of play as a teaching technique. Kindergarten teachers’ perception positively influenced their use of play as a teaching technique. Among other factors such as availability of play materials, the kind of motivation teachers received as teachers influenced the use of play as a technique of teaching. Teaching experiences were the most influential factors to kindergarten teachers’ use of play as a teaching technique. It was concluded that early childhood teachers in Afadjato South District had good intentions on the use of play as a teaching technique. Also, kindergarten teachers’ could use play as a teaching technique depending on their perception towards play. Moreover, factors that contributed to kindergarten teachers’ use of play as a teaching technique were: availability of play materials, the kind of motivation teachers receive and their teaching experiences. It was recommended that through in-service training, head teachers should encourage early childhood teachers in Afadjato South District to continuously have positive perception towards play as a teaching technique. Also, personnel in charge of supervision at the Afadjato South District Education Directorate should educate kindergarten teachers to use play as a teaching technique.


  1. Amin, Z. (2000). Q Methodology - A journey into the subjectivity to the human mind. Singapore Medical Journal 41 (8), 410-414.

  2. Al Kaabi, A. S. (2005). Factors influencing teacher attrition in United Arab Emirates. Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation. University of Pittsburg.

  3. Ashiabi, G. (2007). Play in the preschool classroom: its socio-emotional significance and the teacher’s role in play. Early Childhood Education Journal, 35(2), 199-207.

  4. BredeKamp, S. & Copple, C. (Eds.) (2009). Developmentally appropriate practices in early childhood education programmes. Washington, DC: NAEYC.

  5. Brownson, R. C. (2010). Translating epidemiology into policy to prevent childhood obesity: the case for promoting physical activity in school settings. Annuals of Epidemiology, 20(6), 436-444.

  6. Bjorkland, D. F. & Gardiner, A. K. (2011). “Object Play and Tool Use: Developmental and

  7. evolutionary perspective. The Oxford Handbook of the Development of Play.

  8. Bodrova, E. C., Germeroth, C. & Leng, D, J. (2013). “Play and Self-Regulation: Lessons

  9. from Evolutionary Perspectives.” In the Oxford Handbook of the Development of Play, edited Vygotsky.” American Journal of Play, 6, 111–123.

  10. Bodrova, E., Germeroth, C. & Leong, D. J. (2013). Play and self-regulation: Lessons from Vygotsky. American Journal of Play, 6(1), 111-123.

  11. Connolly, J. A. & Doyle, A.-B. (1984). Relation of social fantasy to social competence in preschoolers. Developmental Psychology, 20, 797-806.

  12. Casby, M. W. (2003). Developmental assessment of play: A model for early intervention. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 24, 175- 183.

  13. Eberle, S. G. (2011).Playing with the Multiple Intelligences: How Play Helps them Grow.

  14. American Journal of Play, 4, 19–51.

  15. Elkind, D. (2004). Thanks for the memory: The lasting value of true play. Spotlight on young

  16. children and play. Washington, DC: NAEYC.

  17. Frost, J. L., Wortham, S. C. & Reifel, S. (2008). Play and child development (3rd ed.) Upper Saddle River NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.

  18. Froebel, F. (1987). Child and society. New York: W.W Norton Press.

  19. Fisher, K., Lepper, M. R. & Henderlong, J. (2009). Playing Around in School: Implications for Learning and Educational Policy. In the Oxford Handbook of the Development of Play, edited by Anthony D. Pellegrini, 341–62.

  20. Fraenkel, J. R. & Wallen, N. E. (2002). How to design and evaluate research in education. (4th ed.). San Francisco: McGraw-Hill

  21. Fogle, L. & Mendez, J.L.(2006). Assessing the play beliefs of African American mothers  children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 21, 507-518

  22. Graue, M. E. (2009). Reimagining kindergarten. Education Digest, March, 2010.

  23. Graue, M. E. (2001). “What’s going on in the children’s garden? Kindergarten Today. Research in Review.” Young Children, 56, 67–73.

  24. Healy, J. (2004). Your child’s growing mind: Brain development and learning from birth to adolescence. New York, NY: Broadway Books.

  25. Kostelnik, M.J., Soderman, A.K., Whiren, A.P., Rupiper, M.L., & Gregory, K.M (2015). 

  26. Guiding Children’s Social Development and Learning: Theory and Skills, 8th ed. Stamford, CT: Cengage.

  27. Lee, V. E., Burkam, D. T., Ready, D. D., Honigman, J. & Meisels, S. J. (2006). Full-day versus half-day kindergarten in which program do children learn more? American Journal of Education, 112(2), 163-208.

  28. Lichtman, M. (2010). Qualitative research in education: A user's guide (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc.

  29. Maehr, M. L. (1986). The motivation factor. A theory of personal investment. New York: Lexington Press.

  30. Meisels, S. L., & Shonkoff, J. P. (2000). Early childhood intervention: A continuing evolution. Handbook of early childhood intervention. New York NY: Cambridge University Press.

  31. Miller, E. & Almon, J. (2009). Crisis in the kindergarten: why children need to play in school. Education Digest, September 2009.

  32. Mtahabwa, M & Rao, N (2010). Pre-primary education in Tanzania: Observations from urban  and rural classrooms International Journal of Educational Development, 30(3).

  33. Ng’asike, J. (2004). Teachers’ use of play as a medium of bridging pre-school children’s mathematic experiences: A case study of Kasarani Division, Nairobi. (Unpublished M.Ed. Thesis) Kenyatta University.

  34. Owocki, G. (1999). Literacy through play. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

  35. Pellegrini, A. D. (2011). “Introduction and Overview.” In the Oxford Handbook of the Development of Play, edited by Anthony D. Pellegrini, 3–8.

  36. Right to Play Ghana (2016). Our 2016 Annual Report, Ghana.


  38. Rodkin, P. C. & Hodges, E. V. E. (2003). Bullies and victims in the peer ecology: Four questions for psychologists and school psy-chologists. School Psychology Review, 32, 384-400.

  39. Saracho, O. N, & Spodek, B. (1995). Children's play and early childhood education: Insights

  40. from history and theory Journal of education, 177(3)129-148.

  41. Schiffman, R. F. (2003). Mother-infant interaction in low-income families. The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 28, 246-251.

  42. Warner, L. & Parker, W. F. (2005). "You're it!": Thoughts on play and leaning in schools.

  43. Wentzel, K. R. (1991). Social competence at school: Relation between social responsibility and academic achievement. Review of Educational Research, 61, 1-24.

About Us

The Asian Institute of Research is an online and open-access platform to publish recent research and articles of scholars worldwide. Founded in 2018 and based in Indonesia, the Institute serves as a platform for academics, educators, scholars, and students from Asia and around the world, to connect with one another. The Institute disseminates research that is proven or predicted to be of significant influence for the general public.

Contact Us

Please send all inquiries to the email:

Business Address:

5th Floor, Kavling 507, Fajar Graha Pena Tower, Jl. Urip Sumohardjo No.20, Makassar, Indonesia 90234

Copyright © 2018 The Asian Institute of Research. All rights reserved

Stay Connected

  • Instagram - Black Circle
  • Facebook - Black Circle
  • LinkedIn - Black Circle