Education Quarterly Reviews
Published: 30 April 2021
Excused and Legitimized Violence in School
Ayşe Esra İşmen Gazioğlu
Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Turkey
Download Full-Text Pdf
Keywords: Violence in School, Legitimized Violence, Corporal Punishment, Turkey
This study was carried out to examine whether the students excuse the teacher violence that could be resorted to them. The sample of the study consisted of 222 girls (47.1%) and 249 boys (52.9%) students studying in secondary schools and high schools in Istanbul. A questionnaire developed by the researcher was used to collect data. Content analysis and non-parametric techniques were used together in the analysis of the data. As a result of the research, it was found that the situation in which violence is mostly excused is "cheating in exams." It was found that students attending public schools excused violence more than those studying at private schools. The content analysis showed that the students stated that teachers should resort to corporal violence, psychological violence, and punishment rather than non-punitive practices.
Akduman G. G. (2010). Okul öncesi dönem çocuğu olan annelerin uyguladıkları disiplin yöntemlerinin çocuk istismarı açısından değerlendirilmesi [Evaluation of mothers disciplinary practises at preschooler period in the view of child abuse]. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Buca Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi,27, 38-49.
Boldurmaz, A. (2000). İlköretim okullarındaki sınıf yönetimi süreçlerinin değerlendirilmesi [The Evaluation of classroom management processes in elementary schools] [Unpublished master's thesis]. İzmir: Dokuz Eylül University.
Brown, W. E., & Payne, T. (1992). Teachers’ views of discipline changes from 1981 to 1991, Education,112(4), 534-537.
Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2005). Introduction: The discipline and practice of qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed., pp. 1-28). Sage.
Foucault, M. (1992). Hapishanenin doğuşu [The birth of prison]. Çev: M. Ali Kılıçbay, İmge.
Garbarino, J., Guttmann, E., & Seeley, W. J. (1986). The psychologically battered child. Strategies for identification, assessment and intervention. Jossey – Bass Publishers.
Good, T.L. and Brophy, J.E. (2000). Looking in classrooms (8th ed.). Longman.
Gözütok, F. D. (1993a). Disiplin sağlamada öğretmen davranışları [Teacher behaviour in maintaining discipline]. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 25, 703-711.
Gözütok, F. D. (1993b). Okulda dayak [Beating students in schools]. 72 Ofset
Gözütok, F., D. (1994). Öğretmenlerin Dayağa Karşı Tutumları ve Okullarda Dayak Uygulamaları [Corporal punishments in schools and teachers' attitudes about beating in schools] I.Educational Sciences Congress April 28-30, 564-573. Çukurova University Press.
Harlow, E. (1996). Gender, violence and social work organizations. In B. Fawcett, B. , Featherstone, J. Hearn, & C. Toft (Eds.), Violence and gender relations (pp. 61-71). Sage.
Hastings, J. E., & Hamberger, L. K. (1997). Sociodemographic predictors of violence. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 20(2), 323–335.
Hyman, I. (1988). Corporal punishment. In R. Gorton, G. Schneider & J. Fisher (Eds.), Encyclopedia of school administration and supervision (pp. 79–80). Oryx Press.
Hyman, I. (1990). Reading, writing and the hickory stick: The appalling story of physical and psychological abuse of American school children. Lexington Books.
Hyman, I. (1995). Corporal punishment, psychological maltreatment, violence and punitiveness in America: Research, advocacy and public policy. Journal of Applied and Preventive Psychology, 4, 113–130.
Hyman, I., Barrish, B., & Kaplan, J. (1997). Corporal punishment. In G. Bear, K. Minke, & A. Thomas (Eds), Children’s needs: Psychological perspectives (pp. 471–478). National Association of School Psychologists.
Hyman, I. A., & Perone, D. C. (1998). The other side of school violence: Educator policies and practices that may contribute to student misbehavior. Journal of School Psychology. 36 (1), 7-27.
Kale, N. (1995). Çocuk ve Ceza-Ceza Olgusuna Felsefi Bir Yorum [Child and punishment- A philosophical interpretation of punishment]. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 28 (1), 49-58.
Kızıltepe, R., Irmak, T. Y., Eslek, D., & Hecker, T. (2020). Prevalence of violence by teachers and its association to students’ emotional and behavioural problems and school performance: findings from secondary school students and teachers in Turkey. Child Abuse & Neglect, 107..
Kilimci, S. (2009). Teachers’ perceptions on corporal punishment as a method of discipline in elementary schools. The Journal of International Social Research, 2(8), 242-251.
Köknel, Ö. (2013). Şiddetin dili [Language of violence]. Remzi
Kutlu, L., Batmaz, M., Bozkurt, G., Gençtürk, N., & Gül, A. (2007). Annelere Çocukluklarında Uygulanan Ceza Yöntemleri İle Çocuklarına Uyguladıkları Ceza Yöntemleri Arasındaki İlişki [The relation between punishment methods applied to mothers in their own childhood and punishment methods applying to their children]. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 8, 22-29.
Mahiroğlu, A., & Buluç, B. (2003). Ortaöğretim kurumlarında fiziksel ceza uygulamaları [An implications of corporal punishment in Turkish high schools]. Türk Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 1(1), 81-93.
Mercan, M., & Çam, S. (2003, July 9-11). Okullardaki disiplin cezası uygulamalarının sonuçlarıyla ilgili görüşlerin incelenmesi [Investigation of consequences of disciplinary penalties in schools] [Oral presentation]. VII. National Psychological Counseling and Guidance, Malatya, İnönü University, Turkey.
Michaud, Y. (1991). Şiddet [Violence]. İletişim
Miller, W.A. (1966). Mr. Quinton on “An odd sort of right”, Philosophy, 41, 258–269.
Orhon, F. S., Ulukol, B., Bingoler, B., & Gulnar, S. B. (2006). Attitudes of Turkish parents, pediatric residents, and medical students toward child disciplinary practices. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30, 1081–1092.
Peters, R.S. (1966). Ethics and education. George Allen & Unwin.
Sadık, F. (2000). İlköğretim birinci aşama sınıf öğretmenlerinin sınıfta gözlemledikleri
problem davranışlar [Disruptive behaviours in the classroom observed by the primary school teachers] [Unpublished master's thesis]. Çukurova University.
Sadık, F. (2008). The investigation of strategies to cope with students’ misbehaviors according to teachers and students’ perspectives. Elementary Education Online, 7(2), 232-251.
Sadık, F. ve Türkoğlu A. (2007, September 5-7). Aile içinde uygulanan disiplin yöntemlerinin ebeveyn ve çocukların algılayışlarına göre incelenmesi [Examination of disciplinary methods used in the family in terms of perceptions of parents and children] [Oral presentation]. 16. National Educational Sciences Congress, Tokat, Gaziosmanpaşa University, Turkey.
Saruhan, A. (1987). Bu çocuklar resmen dayak istiyor [These children actually deserve spanking]. Öğretmen Dünyası, 8(86), 22-24.
Sofuoğlu, Z., Sarıyer, G., Ataman M. G. (2016). Child maltreatment in Turkey: Comparison of parent and child reports. Central European Journal of Public Health, 24(3) (2016), 217-222,
Şimşek S, & Cankseven Ö. F. (2011). An investigation the behavioral problems of adolescents, who perceived emotional abuse from parents and teachers. Elementary Education Online, 10(3), 1124-1137.
Timuroğlu, V. (1983). Dayak ve demokratik eğitim [Corporal punishment and democratic education]. Öğretmen Dünyası, 4(39), 21.
Weijers, I. (2000) Punishment and upbringing: Considerations for an educative justification of punishment. Journal of Moral Education, 29(1), 61-73.