Legal Aspect of Inclusive Education for Persons with Disabilities in Indonesia

Education Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2621-5799

Published: 11 December 2019

Legal Aspect of Inclusive Education for Persons with Disabilities in Indonesia

Maya Indrasti Notoprayitno, Faridah Jalil

Universitas Trisakti (Indonesia), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia)

pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf

10.31014/aior.1993.02.04.107

Pages: 799-810

Keywords: Inclusive Education, Persons with Disabilities, Legal Culture, Indonesia

Abstract

Education is at the forefront of global development. Meanwhile, persons with disabilities (PWD) play a prominent role in development. Based on the importance of the role of PWD in development, it is necessary to improve the rights, dignity, and welfare of persons with disabilities. One of the action that can be taken by providing equal, equitable and quality educational services according to their physiognomies. Thus, education can be provided through Special Schools and Inclusive Education. The implementation of inclusive education in Indonesia is influence by several social phenomena, but social phenomena often coexist with legal issues. This article aims to identify the legal barriers that hinder the Indonesian government from bringing the right to inclusive education for persons with disabilities in Indonesia. This article is a socio-legal article in which all the information gathered are analysed qualitatively. The analysis shows that, there are weaknesses in the legal substance. The weakness in legal substance strengthens the shortcoming in legal culture, which constitute the social phenomena in society. Therefore, the action that the Indonesian government will take need to take into account the weaknesess in legal substance and the shortcomings in the legal culture.

References

  1. A/HRC/25/29, para. 4 and UNICEF (2012), The Right of Children with Disabilities to Education: A Right-Based Approach to Inclusive Education, Geneva.
  2. Amanda Triwulandari & Weny Savitry Sembiring Pandia (2015), Sikap Guru Terhadap Penerapan Program Inklusif Ditinjau Dari Aspek Guru, Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Program Pascasarjana Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Vol. 2 – No. 2, November 2015
  3. Bagir Manan & Kuntana Magnar. (1997), Beberapa Masalah Hukum Tata Negara Indonesia,, Bandung: Alumni
  4. Bahati Vedaste (2013), Rwanda’s International Human Rights Obligation, Regarding the Right to Education for Children With Disabilities, (Degree of master of Law in International Human Rights Law and HIV in Africa), Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria.
  5. Center for Education and Culture Data and Statistics, Statistics of Special Schools 2016/2017, Ministry of Education and Culture Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta 2017
  6. -------------------------------------------------------------------- , Statistics of Special Schools 2017/2018, Ministry of Education and Culture Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta 2018
  7. Directorate of Special Education, Directorate General of Primary and Secondary Education, Ministry of Education and Culture Republic of Indonesia (2015/2016)
  8. D.I. Yogyakarta Governor Regulation 21/2013 on the Implementation of Inclusive Education
  9. D. I. Yogyakarta Mayor Regulation Number 47/2008 concerning the Implementation of Inclusive Education.
  10. Central Kalimantan has Local Regulation 10/2012 concerning the Implementation of Education
  11. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)
  12. Croft, A. (2013). Promoting access to education for disabled children in low-income countries: Do we need to know how many disabled children there are?, International Journal of Educational Development, 33(3), 233–243.
  13. Eide, Asbjorn and Catarina Krause (ed). (2001), Hak Ekonomi, Sosial dan Budaya, Martinus Nijhoff Publisher.
  14. Farid Sulaimanov (2015), Issues of Inclusive Education: Some Aspects to be Considered, Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education”, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2015, http://corescholar.libraries.wright.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1175&context=ejie
  15. Filiz Polat (2011), Inclusion in Eduation: Step Towards Social Justice, Journal of International Educational Development, Vol. 31 no. 1
  16. Gauthier de Beco (2014), The Right to Inclusive Education According to Article 24 of the UN Convention on The Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Background, Requirements And (Remaining) Questions, Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, Vol. 32/3, 2014, http://www.includ-ed.eu/sites/default/files/documents/de_beco_nqhr_32.3.pdf.
  17. General Comment number 13 on Article 13 ICESCR
  18. General Comment number 4 on Article 24 CRPD
  19. Herlambang P. Wiratraman (2008), Penelitian Sosio-Legal dan Konsekuensi Metodologisnya, Center of Human Rights Law Studies (Hrls), Fakultas Hukum Universitas Airlangga, https://herlambangperdana.files.wordpress.com/2008/06/penelitian-sosio-legal-dalam-tun.pdf 
  20. http://www.inclusive-education-in-action.org/iea/index.php?menuid=36#i, Downoaded on 5th December 2016
  21. https://www.sdg2030indonesia.org, downloaded on 27th of October 2019.
  22. Ian C. Copeland, (1995). The establishment of models of education for disabled children. British Journal of Educational Studies, 43(2), 189.
  23. Inclusive Education, UNESCO; http://www.unescobkk.org/education/inclusive-education/what-is-inclusive-education/, (14 March 2016)
  24. International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights
  25. Interview with Head of Leraning Section, Directorate of Special Education, Directorate General of Primary and Secondary Education, Ministry of Education and Culture Republic of Indonesia - MoEC on 6 March 2019.
  26. Interview with Head of Indonesian Child Protection Commission - KPAI on 8 March 2019
  27. Katarina Tomasevski, Pendidikan Berbasis Hak Asasi Penyederhanaan Persyaratan Hak Asasi Manusia Global,Proyek Kerja Sama antara Pelapor Khusus Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa (PBB) tentang Hak atas Pendidikan dan Biro Pendidikan Wilayah Asia Pasifik UNESCO
  28. Klaus Dieter Beiter (2005), The Protection of Right to Education by International Law, Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publisher.
  29. Laudan Aron & Pamela Loprest (2012), The Future of Children, Journal Article Disability and The Education System Children with Disabilities, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 97-122
  30. Law Number 20 of 2003 concerning the National Education System
  31. Law Number 12 Year 2011 concerning Formulation of Regulatory Legislation
  32. Law Number 8 of 2016 concerning Persons with Disabilities
  33. Lawrence M. Friedman (1987), The Legal System: A Social Science Perspective, New York: Russell Sage Foundation, p. 15
  34. Leyla Denisa Obreja, The Relationship Between Affirmative Action and Equality In The International Human Rights System: A Compatibility Test, (Master Thesis, International Human Rights Law), Faculty of Law, Lund University, p.58
  35. Lucyline Nkatha Murungi (2013), The Significance of Article 24(2) of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities for the Right to Primary Education of Children with Disabilities: A Comparative Study of Kenya and South Africa, 2013, http://hdl.handle.net/11394/2983.
  36. Maria Farida Indrasti S. (2007), Ilmu Perundang-Undangan, Jenis, Fungsi, dan Materi Muatan, Jakarta: PT. Kanisius.
  37. Miles, S., & Singal, N. (2009). The Education for All and inclusive education debate: conflict, contradiction or opportunity? International Journal of Inclusive Education, 14(1), 1–15.
  38. Minister of National Education regulation Number 70 of 2009 concerning Inclusive Education For Students With Special Needs Has The Potential of Intelligence And or Students with Special Talents
  39. Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education Regulation No, 46 ​​of 2017 concerning Special Education and Special Education with Special Services.
  40. Padhi,Soubhagya Ranjan (2016), Overcoming Exclusion and Marginalization in Education through Inclusive Approaches: Challenges and Vision of Arunachal Pradesh in India, International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Vol. 6, No. 4
  41. Reynaert, Didier & Maria Bouverne-de-Bie, Stijn Vandevel (2009), The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child A Review of Children's Rights Literature Since the Adoption of the United, childhood, Sage Journal, http://chd.sagepub.com/, 2009.
  42. Ro’fah Mudzakir (2011), Parents‘ Perspective on Inclusive Education in Indonesia (A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies, McGill University in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
  43. Satrio Budi Wibowo & Juhri Abdul Muin (2018), Inclusive Education in Indonesia: Equality Education Access for Disabilities, The 1st ICSEAS 2016 The 1st International Conference on South East Asia Studies, 2016
  44. Soetandyo Wignjosoebroto, (2007), Hak-Hak Ekonomi, Sosial Dan Budaya, Workshop Memperkuat Justisiabilitas Hak-Hak Ekonomi, Sosial Dan Budaya : Prospek Dan Tantangan, Yogyakarta, 13 - 15 November 2007, p. 3-5
  45. Supriyanto Abdi, Eko Riyadi, Potret Pemenuhan Hak Atas Pendidikan dan Perumahan di Era Otonomi Daerah: Analisis Situasi di Tiga Daerah,Yogyakarta: PUSHAM UII.
  46. Thomas A. Birkland (2011), An Introduction to the Policy Process Theories, Concepts, and Models of Public Policy Making, Routledge, p. 9-10
  47. The Human Right Protection of Vulnerable Groups,  www.humanrights.is/the-human rights.../humanrightscasesandmaterials/humanrightsconceptsideasandfora/Undirflokkur/ (1 March 2017)
  48. The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education, Adopted By The World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access And Quality, Salamanca, Spain, 7-10 June 1994.
  49. The 1945 Indonesia Constitution
  50. UNESCO’s Convention against Discrimination in Education 1960
  51. Universal Declaration on Human Rights
  52. Waddington, Lisa, Carly Toepke. (2014), Moving Towards Inclusive Education as a Human Right an Analysis of International Legal Obligations to Implement Inclusive Education in Law And Policy, Faculty of Law, Maastrich University.
  53. Yosep Adi Prasetyo. (2012), Hak Ekosob dan Kewajiban Negara, Pemerkuatan Pemahaman Hak Asasi Manusia untuk Hakim Seluruh Indonesia, PUSHAM UII and Norwegian Centre for Human Rights

About Us

The Asian Institute of Research is an online and open-access platform to publish recent research and articles of scholars worldwide. Founded in 2018 and based in Indonesia, the Institute serves as a platform for academics, educators, scholars, and students from Asia and around the world, to connect with one another. The Institute disseminates research that is proven or predicted to be of significant influence for the general public.

Contact Us

Please send all inquiries to the email:

editorial@asianinstituteofresearch.org

Business Address:

5th Floor, Kavling 507, Fajar Graha Pena Tower, Jl. Urip Sumohardjo No.20, Makassar, Indonesia 90234

Copyright © 2018 The Asian Institute of Research. All rights reserved

Stay Connected

  • Instagram - Black Circle
  • Facebook - Black Circle
  • LinkedIn - Black Circle