Education Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2621-5799

Published: 16 November 2018

Low Attendance and Transition Rates of Women at the Tertiary Level: Impact of Internet Innovation in Ghana

Abdul-Rahim Ahmed, Mohammed Ahmed, Dr. Issah Iddrisu, Nurudeen Abdul-Rahaman, Latif Amadu

University of Science and Technology of China

pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Ghanaian education industry, especially at the tertiary level has witnessed progressive growth over the years. As a result of this, technology is required to sustain this progress since technology has become a powerful tool for women to further their education without experiencing any role conflict. However, of great concern are the challenges such as gender imbalance, the high cost of tertiary education, women's inability to secure ICT equipment. Based on this, the study examined the relationship between Internet Technology (IT) accessibility and women's tertiary education in Tamale. The quantitative case study was adopted as research design and using purposive sampling procedure also supported by simple random sampling for data collection. A chi-square test was employed to examine the causal relationship between internet technology availability and women's education accessibility. It was discovered that there is a strong positive relationship between internet availability and women's accessibility to tertiary education. The study also disclosed satisfactory ICT infrastructure, the growth of internet usage for learners pursuing tertiary education. Gender imbalance, the high cost of tertiary education, women's inability to secure ICT equipment and the role conflict between domestic and tertiary education were also discovered. Based on these findings, the study recommends the construction of a strong and resilient Fiber Optic System (FOS) should be treated as a top priority by the National Communication Authority (NCA). To achieve this objective, there should be Public Private Participation (PPP) so as to ensure cost-sharing between the government and the private sector and also prevent the overburdening of either the public or the private sector. Universities should consider incorporating e-learning systems as part of the medium of instruction so as to address the role conflict which normally occurs between women's domestic chores and their urge for advanced and further educational pursuit.


  1. Affortey, B. (2015). The Educational System of Ghana. U.S. Embassy Ghana. Retrieved from

  2. Agbatogun, A. O. (2013). Interactive Digital Technologies’ Use in Southwest Nigerian Universities. Education Technology Research Development, 61, 333–357.

  3. Aja-Okorie, U. (2013). Women Education In Nigeria: Problems And Implications For Family Role And Stability. European Scientific Journal, 9(28), 272–282.

  4. Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2010). Class differences: Online education in the United States, 2010. Education. Retrieved from 


  6. Amenyedzi, F. W. K., Lartey, M. N., & Dzomeku, B. M. (2011). The Use of Computers and Internet as Supplementary Source of Educational Material: A Case Study of the Senior High Schools in the Tema Metropolis in Ghana. Contemporary Educational Technology, 2, 151–162.

  7. Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2011). Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy. The  International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12 (3). Retrieved  from

  8. Anderson, T. (2009). The Dance of Technology and Pedagogy in Self-Paced Distance Education. Paper Presented At The 17th ICDE World Congress, Maastricht. Retrieved:

  9. Annand, D. (2011). Re-Organizing Universities For The Information Age, The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, vol. 8(3). 

  10. Ayoo, P. O. (2009). Reflections on the Digital Divide and its Implications for the Internationalization of Higher Education in A Developing Region: The Case of East Africa. Higher Education Policy (22), 303–318.

  11. Bannier, B. J. (2016). Global Trends in Transnational Education. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 6(1), 80–84.

  12. Central Intelligence Agency. (2014a). CIA World Fact book-Ghana. Retrieved from

  13. Dehoney, J., & Reeves, T. (1999). Instructional and Social Dimensions of Class Web Pages. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 10 (2), 19–41.

  14. Downes, S. (2012). Connectivism And Connective Knowledge: Essays on Meaning and Learning Networks (version 1.0). Retrieved from

  15. Gender Working Group (2010). Taking Action: Conclusions and recommendations of the Gender Working Group. In Missing Links: Gender Equity in Science and Technology for Development. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre (IDRC). 

  16. Gottlieb, D. (2015). The Road Ahead In the Quest for Access. E-Leaning Africa: Perspectives on ICT, Education, and Development in Africa. Retrieved from:

  17. Knowles, M. S. (1984). The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species(3rd ed.). Houston, TX: Gulf

  18. Kumi-Yeboah, A. (2010). A Look at the Trend of Distance and Adult Education in Ghana. International Forum of Teaching and Studies, 6(1), 19–27.

  19. McLoughlin, C., & Lee, M. J. W. (2008). The Three P's Of Pedagogy for The Networked Society: Personalization, Participation, and Productivity. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 20 (1), 10–27.

  20. Moore, M., & Kearsley, G. (2012). Distance Education: A Systems View of Online Learning (3RD ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. ISSN 2375-0782 (Print) 2375-0790 (Online) © Center for Promoting Ideas, USA www.jespnet.com110.

  21. Ostiguy, N., & Haffer, A. (2001). Assessing Differences in Instructional Methods: Uncovering How Students Learn Best. Journal of College Science Teaching, 30(6), 370–374.

  22. Paranto, S., & Neumann, H. (2006). Analysis of a Student-Centered, Self-Paced Pedagogy Style For Teaching Information Systems Courses. Systemics, Cybernetics, and Informatics, 4 (6),1–4.

  23. Siemens, G. (2008). What is the Unique Idea in Connectivism. Retrieved from

  24. Simmons, L. L., Mbarika, I., Mbarika, V. W., Thomas, C. A., Tsuma, C., Wade, T. L., & Wilkerson, D. (2011). Tele-Education Initiatives for Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of The African Virtual University in Kenya. Journal of STEM Education, 12(6), 78–90.

  25. Thurmond, V. A., & Wambach, K. (2004). Understanding Interactions in Distance Education: A Review of the Literature. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 1 (1), 9–26.

  26. Touré. H. I. (2010). Current Situation in Africa. Available:,

  27. UNESCO (2007). Science, Technology and Gender: An International Report.Paris: UNESCO. 

  28. UNESCO, & Information Develoment. (2015). Educational Technology Debate: Exploring ICT and Learning in Developing Countries. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from

  29. United Nations Development Programme. (2010). Human Development Report 2010 the Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways To Human Development. Human Development (Vol. 21).doi:10.2307/2137795.

  30. United Nations Development Programme. (2013). Human Development Report 2013 the Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. doi:ISBN: 978-92-1-126340-4.

  31. United Nations Development Programme. (2014a). Human Development Report 2014 Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience. New York, USA.

  32. United Nations Development Programme. (2014b). Human Development Report 2014 Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience-Nigeria Summary. Retrieved from


  34. Wainaina, B., Sanou, B., Boateng, P., & Opoku-Mensah, A. (2014). The eLearning Africa Report 2014.

About Us

The Asian Institute of Research is an online and open-access platform to publish recent research and articles of scholars worldwide. Founded in 2018 and based in Indonesia, the Institute serves as a platform for academics, educators, scholars, and students from Asia and around the world, to connect with one another. The Institute disseminates research that is proven or predicted to be of significant influence for the general public.

Contact Us

Please send all inquiries to the email:

Business Address:

5th Floor, Kavling 507, Fajar Graha Pena Tower, Jl. Urip Sumohardjo No.20, Makassar, Indonesia 90234

Copyright © 2018 The Asian Institute of Research. All rights reserved

Stay Connected

  • Instagram - Black Circle
  • Facebook - Black Circle
  • LinkedIn - Black Circle