Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Education Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2621-5799

asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
crossref
doi
open access

Published: 30 April 2021

Music and Mathematics: The Effect of Matching Musical Meters with Geometric Shapes on 6th Graders’ Learning Outcomes

Özge Çongur Yeşilkaya, Birsen Jelen, Itır Eskioğlu

Gazi University, Turkey

asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf

doi

10.31014/aior.1993.04.02.245

Pages: 264-279

Keywords: Music and Mathematics, Aksak Meters, Geometric Shapes, Music Education, Teaching

Abstract

Aksak meters such as 5/8, 7/8, 9/8 are not formed equally and teaching these meters to the students usually takes a long time and learning these measures requires a dedicated effort. The aim of this research is to determine whether the teaching 5/8,7/8,9/8 aksak meters to the students in sixth grade through geometric shapes is more effective than regular techniques used in the music lesson. The research group was composed of 120 sixth grade students between ages 11-14 in one private and one public school in Ankara. The research was composed in randomized pre-test, post-test control group experimental design. During 8 weeks teaching aksak meters through matching musical meters to geometrical shapes technique was practiced with the experimental group. The data was analyzed on the IBM SPSS Statistics 22 Program. Mc Nemar test was used for the dependent relationship between two categorical variables. According to findings of this research, students in the experimental group scored higher points in their post-test than students in the control group and improved their efficacy in distinguishing the aksak measures. This shows that teaching aksak Meters through geometric shapes affected students’ learning outcomes in a positive way.

References

  1. An, S. A., Kulm, G. O., & Ma, T. (2008). The effects of a music composition activity on Chinese students’ attitudes and beliefs towards mathematics: An exploratory study. Journal of Mathematics Education, 1(1), 91-108.

  2. An, S. A., & Capraro, M. M. (2011) Music-math integrated activities for elementary and middle school students. Irvine, CA: Education for All.

  3. An, S.A., & Tillman, D. (2015). Music activities as a meaningful context for teaching elementary students mathematics: a quasi-experiment time series design with random assigned control group. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 3( 1), 45-60.

  4. An, S. A., Tillman, D., Boren, R., & J. Wang. (2014). Fostering elementary students' mathematics disposition through music mathematics integrated lessons. International Journal for Mathematics Teaching and Learning, 15(3), 1-18.

  5. An, Song, Capraro, M. M. Tillman, D. A., (2013). Elementary teachers integrate music activities into regular mathematics lessons: Effects on students’ mathematical abilities, Journal for Learning through the Arts, 9(1).

  6. An, S. A., Zhang, M., Tillman, D. A., Lesser, L. M., Siemssen, A., & Tinajero, J. V. (2016). Learning to teach music-themed mathematics: An Examination of preservice teachers’ beliefs about developing and implementing interdisciplinary mathematics pedagogy. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 18(1), 20-36.

  7. https://mted.merga.net.au/index.php/mted/article/view/273/255.

  8. Arom, S. (2004). L’aksak: Principes et typologie. Cahiers de Musiques Traditionnelles, 17, 11-48.

  9. Azaryahu, L., Courey S., J., Elkoshi, R. E., Japha, E. A., (2019). ‘MusiMath’ and ‘Academic Music’ – Two music‐based intervention programs for fractions learning in fourth grade students. 23, (4), DOI: 10.1111/desc.12882

  10. Beer, M. (1998). How do mathematics and music relate to each other? Brisbane, Queensland, Australia: East Coast College of English.

  11. Bamberger, J., & Disessa, A. (2003). Music as embodied mathematics: A study of a mutually informing affinity. International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 8(2), 123–160.

  12. https ://doi.org/10.1023/B:IJCO.00000 03872.84260.96

  13. Benes-Lafferty, K. M. (1995). An analysis of using musical activities in a second-grade mathematics class. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, PA.

  14. Bautista, A. & Roth, WM (2012). Conceptualizing sound as a form of incarnate mathematical consciousness. Educational Studies in Mathematics.79, (1), pp 41–599: 41.

  15. Campbell, D., (1997). The Mozart Effect: Tapping the Power of Music to Heal the Body, Strengthen the Mind and Unlock the Creative Spirit. London: Avon.

  16. Campbell, D., (2000). The Mozart effect for children: awakening your child’s mind, Health and Creativity with Music. New York: HarperCollins.

  17. Capraro, M. M., Tillman, D.A.,(2013). elementary teachers integrate music activities into regular mathematics lessons: Effects on students' mathematical abilities; Journal for Learning Through the Arts, 9. (1).

  18. Cler, J. (1994). Pour une théorie de l’aksak. Revue de Musicologie, 80(2), 181-210.

  19. Courey, S. J., Baloh, E., Silker, J. R., & Pail, J. (2012). Academic music: Music instruction to engage third-grade students in learning basic fraction concepts. Education Studies in Mathematics, 81, 251-278. doi: 10.1007/s10649-012-9395-9

  20. Cranmore, J., Tunks, J. (2015). High school students’ perceptions of the relationship between music and math. Mid-Western Educational Researcher, 27(1), 51-69.

  21. Dzhudzhev, S. (1931). Rythme et mesure dans la musique populare bulgare. Paris: Librairie Ancienne Champion.

  22. Dzhudzhev, S. (1980). Bŭlgarska narodna muzika: Uchebnik za bŭlgarskata dŭrzhavna konservatoriya (2 ed. Vol. 1). Sofia: Izdatelstvo “Muzika”.

  23. Evans, J. K. (2009). How does integrating music and movement in a kindergarten classroom effect student achievement in math? Wayne State College, Wayne Nebraska. http://gothenburg.k12.ne.us/StaffInfoPg/Papers/J_Evans.pdf.

  24. Harkleroad, L. (2006). The math behind the music. Cambridge, UK: University Press.

  25. Fisher, A., & O'Malley, C. (1997). The wrong keyboard. Popular Science, 97, 41.

  26. Harris, M. A. (2005). Montessori Mozart programme. Montessori International Journal, 75(17). http://ebookbrowsee.net/montessori -mozart-programme-pdf-d325833304.

  27. Martin, M. (1995). S.A.T.'s and music. American Music Teacher, 44, 16-17.

  28. Helmrich, B. H. (2010). Window of opportunity? Adolescence, music, and algebra. Journal of Adolescent Research, 25(4), 557–577. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0743558410366594

  29. Ivanov, V. K., & Geake, J. G. (2003). The Mozart effect and primary school children. Psychology of Music 31(4), 405-413.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03057356030314005

  30. Goldberg, D. (2015). Timing variations in two Balkan percussion performances. Empirical Musicology Review 10(4)305-328.

  31. Gonzales, L. M. (2017). Effect of a music education intervention on fifth-grade students’ ability to learn fractions. (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation), Northcentral University, Graduate Faculty of the School of Education, Prescott Valley, Arizona

  32. James, B. T. (1991). The relationship between mathematics and music: Secondary school student perspectives The Journal of Negro Education, 60(3) pp. 477-485.

  33. Johnson, G., & Edelson, R. J. (2003). The integration of mathematics and music in the primary school classroom. Teaching Children Mathematics, 4, 475-479.

  34. Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/2295499

  35. Karasar, N. (2016). Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemi. Ankara: Nobel Yayıncılık.

  36. Kinney, D. (2008). Selected demographic variables, school music participation, and achievement test scores of urban middle school students. Journal of Research in Music Education, 56(2), 145-161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022429408322530

  37. London, J. (2012). Hearing in time: Psychological aspects of musical meter (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  38. Nagy, I., Malone.,J. (2020). Melody of functions and graphs: improving senior secondary mathematics students’ understanding of the function concept by active integration of mathematics and music. The Educational Review, USA, 4(8), 157-165. DOI: 10.26855/er.2020.08.001

  39. Nemirovsky, R., Tierney, C., & Wright, T. (1998). Body motion and graphing. Cognition and Instruction, 16(2), 119-172.

  40. Nisbet, S. (1998). Listen to the graph: Children’s matching of melodies with their visual representations. (Unpublished Ph.D. thesis). Griffith University: Brisbane, Australia. Rauscher FH, Shaw GL and Ky KN (1993) Music and spatial task performance. Nature 365: 611.

  41. Omniewski, R., & Habursky, B. (1998). The effect of arts infusion on math achievement among second grade students. Contributions to Music Education, 25(2), 38-50.

  42. Özmenteş, G. (2006). İnsan, ritim ve müzik: görüngübilimsel bir bakış, Sanat Sokağı, 2, 23-25.

  43. Papadopoulos, A. (2002). Mathematics and music theory: From Pythagoras to Rameau. The Mathematical Intelligencer, 24, 65–73.

  44. https ://doi.org/10.1007/BF030 25314

  45. Rauscher, F.H., Shaw, G.L., and Ky, K.N. (1995) Listening to Mozart enhances spatial-temporal reasoning: Towards a neurophysiological basis. Neuroscience Letters 185: 44–47.

  46. Rauscher, F. H. (2003). Can music instruction affect children’s cognitive development? ERIC Clearinghouse on Early Education and Parenting, ERIC Identifier: ED480540.

  47. Rogers, G. L., (2004). Interdisciplinary lessons in musical acoustics: The Science-Math-Music connection. Music Educators Journal 2004 91: 25

  48. DOI: 10.2307/3400102

  49. Sachs, C. (1953). Rhythm and tempo: A study in music history. New York: W. W. Norton and Company.

  50. Sakin, S.A., Öztürk, F.G. (2016). Scales and exercises with Aksak meters in flute education: A study with Turkish and Italian students. Educational Research and Reviews. 11(8), pp. 883-890.

  51. DOI: 10.5897/ERR2016.2685

  52. Shaw, G., Rauscher, F., Levine, L., Wright, E., Dennis, W., & Newcomb, R. (1997). Music training causes long-term enhancement of preschool children’s' spatial-temporal reasoning. Neurological Research, 19, 2-8.

  53. Shilling, W. A. (2002). Mathematics, music, and movement: Exploring concepts and connections. Early Childhood Education Journal, 29, 179-184.

  54. Shore, R. (2010). Music and cognitive development: From notes to neural networks. NHSA Dialog, 13(1), 53-65. doi:10.1080/15240750903458113

  55. Schumacher, R., Altenmüller, E., Deutsch, W., & Vitouch, O. (2006). Macht Mozart schlau? Die Förderungkognitiver Kompetenzen durch Musik. [Does Mozart make clever? Advancement of cognitive competencies through music].Bildungsforschung Band, 18(1), 113-130. Berlin, Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung.

  56. http://www.bmbf.de/pub/macht_mozart_schlau.pdf.

  57. Spychiger, M. (2001). Music education is important - Why? Bulletin of the International Kodály Society, 26(1), 32-43. http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/files/29054/11295455821Maria_B._Spychiger.htm/Maria%2BB.%2BSpychiger.htm.

  58. Still, K., & Bobis, J. (2005). The integration of mathematics and music in the primary school classroom. Sydney: University of Syd-ney. http://www.merga.net.au/documents/RP822005.pdf.

  59. Vaughn, K. (2000). Music and mathematics: Modest support for the oft-claimed relationship. The Journal of Aesthetic Education, 34(3/4), 149-166. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3333641?uid=3737536&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid= 21104141630093.

  60. Wenger, W., & Wenger, S. H. (1990). Training music sight-reading and perfect pitch in young children, as a way to enhance their intelligence. Journal of the Society for Accelerative Learning and Teaching, 15, 77-89.