Education Quarterly Reviews
Published: 30 September 2019
Noticing: Its Impact on Adult Users of English in a Non-Native Context
John T. Agor
University of Ghana
Download Full-Text Pdf
Keywords: Noticing, Noticing Experience, Noticing Index, Implicit Knowledge Index, Explicit Knowledge Index
This paper presents one perspective of the conversation on noticing. It investigates the noticing experience of adult users of English in a non-native context. The respondents were forty final-year undergraduate students majoring in Accounting in a public tertiary institution. A questionnaire, a short-written test, and post-test verbal report sessions were used to source empirical data to probe the respondents’ own noticing experience of ten linguistic features. Values were generated to approximate and represent the respondents’ noticing experience, implicit knowledge, and their explicit knowledge of the linguistic features investigated. The study reveals that adult users of English in second language contexts may possess implicit knowledge of linguistic features they had not previously noticed, but they need to notice in order to have explicit knowledge of linguistic features. The study concludes that second language learners usually learn what they have first noticed, and that which has been noticed usually results in learning.
- Agor, J. T. (2014). English on Ghanaian campuses today: A short-term antidote. In Yankah, K., Saah, K., and Amfo, N. (Eds.) Legon Reader in Ghanaian Linguistics, pp.178-191. Oxfordshire: Ayebia Clarke Publishing Limited.
- Agor, J. T. 2018. Undergraduate writing in a second language context: Analysis of English Intra-sentence Issues. Ghana Journal of Linguistics, 7, (1). 32-64.
- Allport, D. 1979. Conscious and unconscious cognition: a computational metaphor for the mechanism of attention and integration. In L. Nilsson (ed.). Perspectives on Memory Research. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
- Atkinson, & Shiffrin, (1968). Human memory: a proposed system and its control processes. In K. Spense (ed.). The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, Vol. 2. New York: Academic Press.
- Bialystok, E. 1978. A theoretical model of second language learning. Language Learning 28(1), 69-83.
- Bialystok, E. 1980. A theoretical model of second language learning. In Kenneth Croft. (Ed.) Readings on English as a Second Language for Teachers and Teacher-Trainees. (199-123). Cambridge, M.A.: Winthrop Publishers Inc.
- Bitchener, J. 2008. Evidence in support of written corrective feedback. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17, 102-118.
- Bitchener, J. & U. Knoch, 2009a. The contribution of written corrective feedback to language development: A ten-month investigation. Applied Linguistics, 31,193-214.
- Bitchener, J. & U. Knoch. 2009b. The relative effectiveness of different types of direct written corrective feedback. System, 37, 322-329.
- Bitchener, J. & U. Knoch. 2010. Raising the linguistic accuracy level of advanced L2 writers with written corrective feedback. Journal of Second Language Writing, 19, 207-217.
- Brown, Dan. 2012. The written corrective feedback debate: Next steps for classroom teachers and practitioners. TESOL Quarterly 46, (4), 861-867.
- Carr, T. H., & Curran, T. 1994. Cognitive factors in learning about structured sequence: Applications to syntax. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 205-230
- Carroll, S. E. 2006. Salience, awareness and SLA. In M. G. O’Brien, C. Shea, and J. Archibald (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8thGenerative Approaches to Second Language Acquisition Conference (GASLA 2006)(pp. 17-24). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
- Chandler, Jean. 2003. The efficacy of various kinds of error feedback for improvement in the accuracy and fluency of L2 student writing. Second Language Writing, 12, 267-296.
- Chandler, Jean. 2004. A response to Truscott. Second Language Writing, 13, 345-348.
- Chandler, Jean. 2009. Dialogue: A response to Truscott. Second Language Writing, 18, 57-58.
- Chi, D. N. 2018. A review of Richard Schmidt’s noticing hypothesis. International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature, 6, (3), 5-10
- Corder, S. P. 1967. The significance of learners’ errors: International Review of Applied Linguistics, 5, 161-169.
- Ellis, R. 1994. Implicit/explicit knowledge and language pedagogy. TESOL Quarterly, 28, 166-172.
- Ellis, R. 2005. Principles of instructed language learning. System 33,209-224.
- Ellis, R. 2006a. Current issues in the teaching of grammar: An SLA perspective. TESOL Quarterly 40, (1), 84-107.
- Ellis, R. 2006b. A balanced perspective: Replying to Sheen. TESOL Quarterly 40, (4), 833-837.
- Ellis, R. 2010. A framework for investigating oral and written corrective feedback. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32, 335-349.
- Ellis, R. 2015. Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: OUP.
- Ellis, R., Y. Sheen, M. Murakami, & H. Takashima. 2008. The effects of focused and unfocused written corrective feedback in an English as a foreign language context.
- Ferris, D. R. 1995. Student reactions to teacher response in multiple-draft composition classrooms. TESOL Quarterly, 29, 33-53.
- Ferris, D. R. 1999. The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Truscott 1996. Journal of Second Language Writing 8,1-10.
- Ferris, D. R. 2004. The “grammar correction” debate in L2 writing: where are we, and where do we go from here? Journal of Second Language Writing 13,49-62.
- Ferris, D. R. 2006. Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short- and long-term effects of written error correction. In: Hyland, K. & F. Hyland. (Eds.). Feedback in Second Language Writing: Contexts and Issues (pp. 81-104). New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Ferris, D. R. 2007. Preparing teachers to respond to student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 16, 165-193.
- Ferris, D. R. 2010. Second language writing research and written corrective feedback in SLA: Intersections and practical applications. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32, 181-201.
- Ferris, D. R., Liu, H., Sinha, A., & Senna M. 2013. Written corrective feedback for individual L2 writers. Journal of Second Language Writing 22,307-329.
- Ferris, D. R., & Roberts, B. 2001. Error feedback in L2 writing classes. How explicit does it need to be? Journal of Second Language Writing 10,161-184.
- Frear, M. W., & J. Bitchener. 2015. The effects of cognitive task complexity on writing complexity. Journal of Second Language Writing, 30, 45-57.
- Gass, S. 1988. Integrating research areas: A framework for second language studies. Applied Linguistics 9, 198-217.
- Gass, S. 1997. Input interaction and the second language learner. Mahway, N.J.: Erlbaum.
- Izumi, S. 2002. Output, input enhancement, and the noticing hypothesis: An experimental study on ESL relativization. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 541-577.
- James, W. 1890. The Principles of Psychology. New York: Holt.
- Kihlstrom, J. 1984. Conscious, subconscious, unconscious: A cognitive perspective. In K. Bowers & D. Meichenbaum (eds.). The Unconscious Reconsidered. (149-211). New York: Wiley.
- Krashen, S. D., 1977. The Monitor Model for adult second language performance. In M. Burt, H. Dulay, & M. Finocchiaro. (Eds.). Viewpoints on English as a Second Language. New York: Regents Publishers.
- Krashen, S. D., 1981. Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon.
- Krashen, S. 1982. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon.
- Krashen, S. 1985. The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. London: Longman.
- Leow, R. P. 1997. Attention, awareness, and foreign language behaviour. Language Learning, 47, 467-502.
- Leow, R. P. 2000. Attention, awareness, and foreign language behaviour: Aware vs. unaware learners. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22, (4), 557-584.
- Leow, R. P. 2013. Schmidt’s noticing hypothesis: more than two decades after. In J. M. Bergsleithner, S. N. Frota, & J. K. Yoshioka (Eds.), Noticing and Second Language Acquisition: Studies in honor of Richard Schmidt. (pp. 11-23). Honolulu: University of Hawai’i.
- Mackey, A. 2006. Feedback, noticing and instructed second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 27, 405-530
- Robinson, P. 1994. Comments on Rod Ellis’s “the structural syllabus and second language acquisition” implicit knowledge, second language learning and syllabus construction. TESOL Quarterly, 28, 161-165.
- Schachter, J. 1998. Recent research in language learning studies: Promises and problems. Language Learning, 48, 557-583.
- Schmidt, R.1990. The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11, (2), 129-158.
- Schmidt, R. 1994. Implicit learning and the cognitive unconscious: Of artificial grammars and SLA. In N. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages (pp. 165-209). London: Academic Press.
- Schmidt, R. 1995. Consciousness and foreign language learning: A tutorial on attention and awareness in learning. In R. Schmidt (Ed.), Attention and Awareness in Foreign Language Learning (pp. 1-63). Honolulu, H.I: University of Hawai’i.
- Schmidt, R. 2001. Attention. In Robinson, P. (Ed.) Cognition and Second Language Instruction (pp. 3-32). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Schmidt, R. 2010. Attention, awareness, and individual differences in language learning. In W. M. Chan, S. Chi, K. N. Cin, J. Istanto, M. Nagami, J. W. Sew, T. Suthiwan, & I. Walker, Proceedings of CLaSIC2010, Singapore, (pp. 721-737). Singapore: National University of Singapore, Centre for Language Studies.
- Sheen Y. 2010. The role of oral and written corrective feedback in SLA. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32,169-179.
- Swan, M., &C. Welter. 2006. Teach the whole of the grammar. TESOL Journal 40,837-839.
- Tomlin, R. S., & Villa, V. 1994. Attention in cognitive science and language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 183-203.
- Truscott, J. 1996. The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes. Language Learning 46, 237-369.
- Truscott, J. 1998. Noticing in second language acquisition: A critical review. Second Language Research, 14, 103-135.
- Truscott, J. 1999. The case for “The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes”: A response to Ferris. Journal of Second Language Writing 8, 111-122.
- Truscott, J. 2007. The effect of error correction on learners’ ability to write accurately. Journal of Second Language Writing 16, 255-272.
- Truscott, J. 2009. Arguments and appearances: a response to Chandler. Journal of Second Language Writing 18, 59-60.
- Truscott, J. 2010. Thoughts on Bruton’s critique of the correction debate. System 38, 329-335.
- Unlu, A. 2015. How alert should I be to learn a language: The noticing hypothesis and its implications for language teaching. Procedia – Social and Behavioural Sciences, 199, 261-267.
- Vahidi, A., Karimi, L. & Mahmoodi, M. 2016. The effect of reconstruction as a noticing strategy on Iranian female first grade high school students’ writing Ability. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 6, 310-324.
- Williams, J. N. 2013. Attention, attention and noticing in language processing and learning. In J.M. Bergsleithner, S. N. Frota, & J. K. Yoshioka (Eds.), Noticing and Second Language Acquisition: Studies in honor of Richard Schmidt. (pp. 39-57). Honolulu: University of Hawai’i, National Foreign Language Center.
- Yoshioka, J. K., Frota, S. N., & Berbsleithner, J. M. 2013. In J.M. Bergsleithner, S. N. Frota, & J. K. Yoshioka (Eds.), Noticing and Second Language Acquisition: Studies in honor of Richard Schmidt. (pp. 1-9). Honolulu: University of Hawai’i.