Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Education Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2621-5799

asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
open access

Published: 27 June 2022

The Acquisition Level of 21st Century Skills in the Primary Education 4th Grade Social Studies Curriculum

Halil Taş, Muhammet Baki Minaz

Ministry of National Education (Turkey), Siirt University (Turkey)

asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 600-611

Keywords: Social Studies Course, Social Studies Education, Curriculum, 21st-Century Skills


Depending on classroom teachers’ views, this study determined the acquisition level of the 21st-century skills in the primary education 4th-grade social studies curriculum. Designed in an explanatory mixed-method model, it used the interpretative phenomenological method for the qualitative data and the scanning method for the quantitative data. The sample consisted of 86 classroom teachers (42 female and 44 male) selected using the cluster sampling method, one of the probabilistic sampling methods. The quantitative data were collected using a 5-point Likert-type scale and analyzed using frequency (f) and percentage (%). The qualitative data were collected using a semi-structured interview form developed by the researcher and analyzed using the content analysis method. The result revealed that the primary education 4th-grade social studies curriculum was insufficient and impractical to convey 21st-century skills. However, it was better in gaining the skills of "collaboration," "using technology for learning," and "communication." It was determined to be insufficient in gaining the skills of "self-management/self-regulation" and making "global connections" and "local connections."


  1. Anagün, Ş. S., Atalay, N., Kılıç, Z., & Yaşar, S. (2016). The development of a 21st century skills and competences scale directed at teaching candidates: Validity and reliability study. Pamukkale University Journal of Education, 40(40), 160-175.

  2. Ananiadou, K., & Claro, M. (2009). 21st century skills and competencies for new millennium learners in OECD countries. OECD Education Working Papers,

  3. Arı, S., & Çalışoğlu, M. (2021). 21st century skills and grade 4th class social studies curriculum. TURAN-CSR: TURAN Center for Strategic Researches 13(52), 276-282.;

  4. Bal, M. (2018). Investigation on the 21st century skills of Turkish language course. Turkish Studies, 13(4), 49-64.

  5. Barası, M. & Erdamar, G. (2021). Analysis of 2018 secondary school Turkish course program in terms of 21st century skills: Teacher opinions. Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal University Journal of Education, 21(1), 222-242.

  6. Belet-Boyacı, Ş. D., & Güner-Özer, M. (2019). The future of learning: Turkish language course curricula from the perspective of 21st century skills. Anadolu Journal of Educational Sciences International, 9(2), 708-738.

  7. Binkley, M., Erstad, O., Herman, J., Raizen, S., Ripley, M., Miller-Ricci, M., & Rumble, M. (2012). Defining twenty-first century skills. In P. Griffin, B. McGaw & E. Care (Eds.), Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills (pp. 17- 66). Springer.

  8. Bozkurt, F. (2021). Evaluation of social studies teaching undergraduate program in terms of 21st century skills. Pamukkale University Journal of Education (PUJE), 51, 34-64. doi:10.9779/pauefd.688622

  9. Büyüköztürk, Ş., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş., Demirel, F. & Çakmak, E. K. (2017). Scientific research methods. Pegem Academy Publishing

  10. Cansoy, R. (2018). 21st century skills according to international frameworks and building them in the education system. Journal of the Human and Social Sciences Researches, 7(4), 3112-3134.

  11. Chu, S. K. W., Reynolds, R. B., Tavares, N. J., Notari, M., & Lee, C. W. Y. (2017). Twenty-first century skills and global education roadmaps. In 21st Century Skills Development Through Inquiry-Based Learning (pp. 17-32). Springer.

  12. Creswell, J. W., & Guetterman, T.C. (2018). Educational research planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Pearson.

  13. Çelikkaya, T. (2011). Transmission level of skills in the social studies curriculum: Teachers’ opinions. Kastamonu Education Journal, 19(3), 969-990.

  14. Çetin, M., & Çetin, G. (2021). A critical outlook on MoNE early childhood education curriculum in terms of 21st century skills. Journal of Education for Life, 35(1), 235-255.

  15. Çiftçi, B., & Bakar, MHD. (2020). Investigation of social studies teacher candidates' 21st century skills competence perceptions. Cappadocia Education Journal, 1(2), 44-60

  16. Dağhan. G., Nuhoğlu-Kibar, P., Menzi-Çetin, N., Telli, E., & Akkoyunlu, B. (2017). 21st century learners’ and teachers’ characteristics from ICT preservice teachers’ perspectives. Educational Technology Theory and Practice, 7(2), 215-235.

  17. Dede, C. (2010). Comparing frameworks for 21st century skills. In J. Bellanca & R. Brandt (Eds.), 21st century skills(pp. 51–76). Solution Tree Press.

  18. Demir, AY, & Özyurt, M. (2021). Investigation of social studies curriculum and coursebooks in the context of 21st century skills, Inonu University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 22(2), 1254-1290.

  19. Demirel, Ö. (2021). Curriculum development in Education: From theory to practice. Pegem Academy Publishing.

  20. Doğanay, A. (2005). Social studies teaching. In C. Öztürk & D. Dilek (Eds.). Life Studies and Social Studies Teaching.Pegem Academy Publishing

  21. Eryılmaz, S., & Uluyol, Ç. (2015). Evaluation of FATIH Project in the consideration of 21st century skills. Journal of Gazi Education Faculty, 35(2), 209-229.

  22. Gelen, İ. (2017). P21- 21st century skill frameworks in curriculum and instruction (USA practices). Journal of Interdisciplinary Educational Research, 1(2), 15-29.

  23. Griffin, P., McGaw, B., & Care, E. (2012). Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills. Springer.

  24. Hamarat, E. (2019). Turkey's education policies focused on 21st century skills. SETA Publications,

  25. Harari, Y. N. (2020). 21 lessons for the 21st century. Random Hause.

  26. İlter, İ. (2017). An evaluation on teachers' teaching methods and practices in social studies lessons. Journal of Theoretical Educational Science, 11(1), 1-29.

  27. Jia, Y., Oh, J.Y., Sibuma, B., LaBanca, F., & Lorentson, M. (2016). Measuring twenty-first century skills: Development and validation of a scale for in-service and pre-service teachers. Teacher Development, 20(2), 229-252.

  28. Kayhan, E., Altun, S., & Gürol, M. (2019). Evaluation of eighth grade Turkish curriculum (2018) in terms of century skills. Adnan Menderes University Journal of Educational Sciences, 10(2), 20-35.

  29. Kereluik, K., Mishra, P., Fahnoe, C., & Terry, L. (2013). What knowledge is of most worth. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 29(4), 127-140.

  30. Kutlu, M., & Schreglmann, S. (2011). Examining the critical thinking dispositions of academics working at universities according to their faculties and titles. Cukurova University Faculty of Education Journal, 40(3), 116-121.

  31. Kylonen, P. C., & Bertling, J. P. (2014). Innovative questionnaire assessment methods to increase cross-country comparability. In L. Rutkowski, M. Von Davier, & D. Rutkowski (Eds.), Handbook of international large-scale assessment: Background, technical issues, and methods of data analysis (pp.277-285). CRC Press.

  32. Larson, C. L., & Miller, N. T. (2011). 21st century skills: Prepare students for the future. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 47(3), 121-123.

  33. MEB. (2011). MEB 21st century student profile.

  34. MEB. (2018). Social studies curriculum (Primary and Secondary School 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th Grades). MEB Publications.

  35. Mutluer, C. (2013). The views of social studies teachers about the skills contained in social studies (The example of İzmir Menemen). Turkish Studies, 8(7), 355-362.

  36. Niemi, H., Pehkonen, L., Niu, J., Teng, J., & Harju, V. (2018). How do teacher education programs guide student teachers to gain the 21st century skills? [Unpublished doctoral dissertation].University of Helsinki.

  37. OECD. (2018). The future of education and skills: Education 2030.

  38. Öztürk, C., & Kafadar, T. (2020). Evaluation of the 2018 social studies curriculum. Trakya Journal of Education, 10(1), 112-126.

  39. Öztürk, D. (2010). The effectiveness of creative thinking skill on student achievement in primary school 6th grade social studies course. [Unpublished master’s thesis].Marmara University

  40. Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Sage Publication, Inc.

  41. Rotherham, A., & Willingham, D. (2009). 21st century skills: The challenges ahead. Educational Leadership, 67(1), 16-21.

  42. Russell, B. W. (2010). Teaching social studies in the 21st century: A research study of secondary social studies teachers' instructional methods and practices. Action in Teacher Education, 32(1), 65-72.

  43. Saavedra, A. R. (2012). Dry to dynamic civic education curricula. In D. Campbell, M. Levinson & F. Hess (Eds.). Making civics count: Citizenship education for a new generation (pp. 135-159). Harvard Education Press.

  44. Saavedra, A. R., & Opfer, V. D. (2012). Learning 21st-century skills requires 21st-century teaching. Phi Delta Kappan, 94(2), 8-13.

  45. Sarıtaş, B., & Yılmaz, A. (2022). An analysis of secondary education Turkish language and literature course with regards to the 21st century skills. National Education, 51(234), 1137-1160

  46. Taş, H., & Kıroğlu, K. (2018). Assessment of the 2017 primary school social studies curriculum according to teachers' views. Elementary Education Online, 17(2), 697-716

  47. Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times. Jossey-Bass.

  48. Tuğluk, M.N. & Özkan, B. (2019). Analysis of MoNE 2013 preschool education program in terms of 21st century skills. Journal of Primary Education, 1(4), 29-38

  49. Voogt, J., & Roblin, N.P. (2012). A comparative analysis of international frameworks for 21st century competences: Implications for national curriculum policies. Journal of curriculum studies, 44(3), 299-321.

  50. Yalçın, S. (2018). 21st century skills and tools and approaches that are used to measure these skills. Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences, 51(1), 183-201.

  51. Yazıcı, H., & Koca, K. (2008). Social studies curriculum. In B. Tay & A. Öcal (Eds.). Social Studies Teaching with Special Teaching Methods. Pegem Academy Publishing

  52. Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2018). Qualitative research methods in the social sciences. Seçkin Publications.

  53. Zajda, J. (2015). Globalisation and its impact on education and policy. In J. Zajda (Ed.). Second international handbook on globalisation, education and policy research (pp. 105-125). Springer.