Education Quarterly Reviews
Published: 13 July 2022
The Effect of Philosophy Education for Children (P4C) on Students' Conceptual Achievement and Critical Thinking Skills: A Mixed Method Research
Ministry of National Education, Turkey
Download Full-Text Pdf
Keywords: Philosophy for Children, Conceptual Achievement, Critical Thinking Skills
The research aims to investigate the effect of philosophy education for children in social studies course on students' conceptual success and critical thinking skills. Sequential descriptive model, one of the mixed methods research approaches, was used in this study. The study group of the research consists of 64 students studying in 5th grade in a secondary school affiliated with the Ministry of National Education located within the provincial borders of Istanbul city. The students included in the study group studied in the same primary school. The students were randomly selected by the researcher considering their primary school grade score averages, gender characteristics and their economic conditions. Quantitative data of the study were collected using Conceptual Achievement Exam and Critical Thinking Skills Scale, on the other hand qualitative data was collected using Semi-Structured Interview Form. In order to reveal the effects of philosophy education practices for children on students' conceptual success and critical thinking skills, a 10-week practice was conducted in the context of “Technology and Life” unit in 5th-grade social studies course book. Quantitative data of the research were analyzed with SPSS package program, and qualitative data were analyzed with MAXQDA program. According to the results of the research, before practices of Philosophy Education for Children, no significant difference was found between mean rank of experimental group's Conceptual Achievement Exam and Critical Thinking Skills Scale pre-test scores and control group's Conceptual Achievement Exam and Critical Thinking Skills Scale pre-test scores. After the practices of Philosophy Education for Children, a significant difference was found between mean rank of experimental group's Conceptual Achievement Exam and Critical Thinking Skills Scale post-test scores and control group's Conceptual Achievement Exam and Critical Thinking Skills' post-test scores on behalf of the experimental group. Experimental group students made a comprehensive evaluation of practices of philosophy education for children. The students stated that philosophy practices for children not only improved their skills in different ways but influenced their critical thinking and also creative, social, verbal and empathy skills as well.
Akkocaoğlu Çayır, N. (2015). A qualitative research on philosophy education for children. (Doctoral Thesis). Hacettepe University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Ankara.
Barrow, W. (2012). A dialogic exploration of philosophy for children as a participatory tool in a primary classroom. (Doctoral Thesis). Newcastle University, Newcastle.
Bhurekeni, J. (2021). An Afrophilic P4C intervention: The case of Sebakwe primary schools in Zimbabwe. Journal of Philosophy in Schools, 8(1).
Biesta, G. (2017). P4C after Auschwitz: On immanence and transcendence in education. Childhood & philosophy, 13(28), 617-628.
Boyacı, N.P., Karadağ, F., & Gülenç, K. (2018). Philosophy for Children / Philosophy with Children: Philosophical methods, applications and aims. Anxiety, 31, 145-173.
Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö.E., Karadeniz, Ş., & Demirel, F. (2017). Scientific research methods. Ankara: Pegem Academy.
Can, A. (2019). Quantitative data analysis in scientific research process with SPSS. (7th ed.). Ankara: Pegem Academy.
Cassidy, C., Christie, D., Marwick, H., Deeney, L., McLean, G., & Rogers, K. (2018). Fostering citizenship in marginalised children through participation in Community of Philosophical Inquiry. Education. Citizenship and Social Justice, 13(2), 120-132.
Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research desing: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed method approaches. (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: SAGE Publications.
Creswell, J. W. (2017). Research design. (Trans. Ed: Demir, S. B.). Ankara: Educational Book.
Daniel, M. F. (2007). Epistemological and educational presuppositions of P4C: From critical dialogue to dialogical critical thinking. Gifted Education Intemational, 22, 135-147.
D’Olimpio, L., & Teschers, C. (2017). Playing with philosophy: Gestures, life-performance, P4C and an art of living. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 49(13), 1257-1266.
Echeverria, E., & Hannam, P. (2016). The community of philosophical inquiry (P4C): a pedagogical proposal for advancing democracy. In the Routledge international handbook of philoso