Journal of Economics and Business

ISSN 2615-3726 (Online)

ISSN 2621-5667 (Print)

Published: 23 May 2019

Balancing Between Work and Life: Determinants and Dynamics

Asif Imtiaz, Md. Mobarak Hossain

University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Download Full-Text Pdf


Pages: 273-280

Keywords: Work-Life Balance, Organizational Support, Benevolence, Working Hours


Thumping a perfect balance between professional and personal life is necessary for upholding the standard of life. The purpose of this study is to discover the determinants those can significantly predict the extent of work-life balance. A sample of 293 workers ranging from 35 years of age to 45 years of age, was analyzed using factor analysis and multiple linear regression. Three latent constructs, i.e. "Organizational Support," "Managing Workers through Benevolence" and "Regularity and Flexibility of Working Hours" were extracted among which the last two constructs have a positive association with the extent of work-life balance while the other construct having no significant relationship. Females compared to males, have less control in balancing work and life, indicating gender divide in this sphere. These findings might be handy for the employing authorities, either public or private.


  1. Atkinson, J.W. and Feather, N.T. eds., 1966. A theory of achievement motivation (Vol. 66). New York: Wiley.

  2. Bansal, I. and Sharma, R., 2012. Achievement Motivation of Managers in Relation to Their Gender: A Study with Specific Reference to ONGC. Asian Journal of Research in Business Economics and Management, 2(6), pp.243-250.

  3. Clark, S.C., 2001. Work cultures and work/family balance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58(3), pp.348-365.

  4. Darcy, C., McCarthy, A., Hill, J., and Grady, G., 2012. Work-life balance: One size fits all? An exploratory analysis of the differential effects of career stage. European Management Journal, 30(2), pp.111-120.

  5. De Cieri, H., Holmes, B., Abbott, J., and Pettit, T., 2005. Achievements and challenges for work/life balance strategies in Australian organizations. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(1), pp.90-103.

  6. (2017). Work–life balance. [online] Available at: Work%E2%80%93life balance[Accessed 16 Aug. 2017].

  7. Fine-Davis, M., Fagnani, J., Giovannini, D., Højgaard, L., and Clarke, H., 2004. Fathers and Mothers: dilemmas of the work-life balance: a comparative study in four European countries (Vol. 21). Springer Science & Business Media.

  8. Forgeard, M.J., Jayawickreme, E., Kern, M.L., and Seligman, M.E., 2011. Doing the right thing: Measuring wellbeing for public policy. International Journal of Wellbeing, 1(1).

  9. Geurts, S.A., Taris, T.W., Kompier, M.A., Dikkers, J.S., Van Hooff, M.L. and Kinnunen, U.M., 2005.Work-home interaction from a work psychological perspective: Development and validation of a new questionnaire, the SWING. Work & Stress, 19(4), pp.319-339.

  10. Goodstein, J.D., 1994. Institutional pressures and strategic responsiveness: Employer involvement in work-family issues. Academy of Management journal, 37(2), pp.350-382.

  11. Goodstein, J.D., 1994. Institutional pressures and strategic responsiveness: Employer involvement in work-family issues. Academy of Management journal, 37(2), pp.350-382.

  12. Greenblatt, E., 2002. Work/life balance: Wisdom or whining. Organizational Dynamics, 31(2), pp.177-193.

  13. Guest, D.E., 2002. Perspectives on the study of work-life balance. Social Science Information, 41(2), pp.255-279.

  14. Hafeez, U., and Akbar, W., 2015. Impact of work-life balance on job satisfaction among school teachers of 21st Century. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 4(11), pp.25-37.

  15. Hall, D. T., Kossek, E. E., Briscoe, J. P., Pichler, S., & Lee, M. D. (2013). Nonwork orientations relative to career: A multidimensional measure. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(3), 539–550.

  16. Hill, E.J., Grzywacz, J.G., Allen, S., Blanchard, V.L., Matz-Costa, C., Shulkin, S., and Pitt-Catsouphes, M., 2008. Defining and conceptualizing workplace flexibility. Community, Work, and Family, 11(2), pp.149-163.

  17. Hill, E.J., Hawkins, A.J., Ferris, M., and Weitzman, M., 2001. Finding an extra day a week: The positive influence of perceived job flexibility on work and family life balance. Family relations, 50(1), pp.49-58.

  18. Hochschild, A., 1997. The time bind. WorkingUSA, 1(2), pp.21-29.

  19. Hyman, J., Baldry, C., Scholarios, D., and Bunzel, D., 2003. Work–life imbalance in call centres and software development. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 41(2), pp.215-239.

  20. Kanthisree, G., 2013. Work life balance of employees: a study on selected public and private sector undertakings.

  21. Keene, J.R., and Quadagno, J., 2004. Predictors of perceived work-family balance: Gender difference or gender similarity? Sociological Perspectives, 47(1), pp.1-23.

  22. Krassner, P., 1958. How a Satirical Editor Became a Yippie Conspirator in Ten Easy Years. Putnam.

  23. Layous, K., Chancellor, J., Lyubomirsky, S., Wang, L., and Doraiswamy, P.M., 2011. Delivering happiness: Translating positive psychology intervention research for treating major and minor depressive disorders. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17(8), pp.675-683.

  24. Lewis, S., Gambles, R., and Rapoport, R., 2007. The constraints of a ‘work–life balance' approach: An international perspective. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(3), pp.360-373.

  25. Lobel, S.A., 1991. Allocation of investment in work and family roles: Alternative theories and implications for research. Academy of Management Review, 16(3), pp.507-521.

  26. McCarthy, A., Cleveland, J.N., Hunter, S., Darcy, C., and Grady, G., 2013. Employee work–life balance outcomes in Ireland: a multilevel investigation of supervisory support and perceived organizational support. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(6), pp.1257-1276.

  27. O’laughlin, E.M., and Bischoff, L.G., 2005. Balancing parenthood and academia: Work/family stress as influenced by gender and tenure status. Journal of Family Issues, 26(1), pp.79-106.

  28. Parvin, M.M., and Kabir, M.N., 2011. Factors affecting employee job satisfaction of pharmaceutical sector. Australian journal of business and management research, 1(9), p.113.

  29. Ritchie J, Lewis J, Elam, G. Designing and selecting samples. Qualitative research practice: a guide for social science students and researchers. 2003; p.77–108.

  30. Scandura, T.A., and Lankau, M.J., 1997. Relationships of gender, family responsibility, and flexible work hours to organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Journal of organizational Behavior, pp.377-391.

  31. Seligman, M.E., 2011. Learned optimism: How to change your mind and your life. Vintage.

  32. Singh, S., 2013. Work life balance: A literature review. Global Journal of Commerce & Management Perspective, 2(3), pp.84-91.

  33. Sturges, J., and Guest, D., 2004. Working to live or living to work? Work/life balance early in the career. Human Resource Management Journal, 14(4), pp.5-20.

  34. Tausig, M., and Fenwick, R., 2001. Unbinding time: Alternate work schedules and work-life balance. Journal of family and economic issues, 22(2), pp.101-119.

  35. Tennant, G.P., and Sperry, L., 2003. Work-family balance: Counseling strategies to optimize health. The Family Journal, 11(4), pp.404-408.

  36. Thomas, L.T., and Ganster, D.C., 1995. Impact of family-supportive work variables on work-family conflict and strain: A control perspective. Journal of applied psychology, 80(1), p.6.

  37. Voydanoff, P., 2004. The effects of work demands and resources on work‐to‐family conflict and facilitation. Journal of Marriage and family, 66(2), pp.398-412.

  38. Wayne, J.H., Randel, A.E., and Stevens, J., 2006. The role of identity and work–family support in work–family enrichment and its work-related consequences. Journal of vocational behavior, 69(3), pp.445-461.

About Us

The Asian Institute of Research is an online and open-access platform to publish recent research and articles of scholars worldwide. Founded in 2018 and based in Indonesia, the Institute serves as a platform for academics, educators, scholars, and students from Asia and around the world, to connect with one another. The Institute disseminates research that is proven or predicted to be of significant influence for the general public.

Stay Connected

  • Instagram - Black Circle
  • Facebook - Black Circle
  • LinkedIn - Black Circle

Contact Us

Please send all inquiries to the email:

Business Address:

5th Floor, Kavling 507, Fajar Graha Pena Tower, Jl. Urip Sumohardjo No.20, Makassar, Indonesia 90234

Copyright © 2018 The Asian Institute of Research. All rights reserved