Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Economics and Business

Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2775-9237 (Online)

asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
open access

Published: 20 August 2019

Conceptualizing Strategic CSR and its Organizational Outcomes: A Review of Literature and Research Agenda

Jane Kimani, James M. Kilika

Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, management journal

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 786-803

Keywords: Environmental Dynamism, Firm Performance, Shared Value, Strategic CSR, Value Creation


The strategic management literature has accorded significant attention to the construct of corporate social responsibility, and the literature on the construct is relatively rich. The literature is, however, faulted for its limitations in the provision of consistent guidelines to business practitioners on how Corporate Social Responsibility can be integrated with operational, business and corporate strategies for achievement of competitive advantage. This paper reviews extant conceptual, theoretical and empirical literature and raises a variety of issues that present a case for a new theoretical model suitable for the expansion of the current understanding of employment of strategic corporate social responsibility and its resultant outcomes. The paper proposes an integrated theoretical model for linking Strategic corporate social responsibility and organizational outcomes while acknowledging the significance of value creation focus and environmental dynamism in the context of the twenty-first-century business operating environment.


  1. Afrin, S. (2013). Traditional Vs. Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility: In Pursuit of Supporting Sustainable Development. Journal of Economic Sustainable Development, 4(20).

  2. Agudelo, M. A., Davídsdóttir, B. & Jóhannsdóttir, L. (2019). A Literature Review of the History and Evolution of Corporate Social Responsibility. International Journal of Corporate Social Responsibility, 4(1). /10.1186/s40991-018-0039-y

  3. Al-Najjar, F.J. (2016). Social Responsibility and its Impact on Competitive Advantage (An Applied Study on Jordanian Telecommunication Companies). International Journal of Business and Social Science,7(2), 114-125.

  4. Ansoff, H. I. & McDonnell, E. J. (1990). Implanting Strategic Management. Cambridge: Prentice Hall.3

  5. Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17, 771-92

  6. Barney, J. (2001). “Is the resource-based view a useful perspective for strategic management research? Yes”. Academy of Management Review, 26 (1), 41-6.

  7. Baum, J.R. & Wally, S. (2003). Strategic Decision Speed and Firm Performance. Strategic Management Journal, 24, 1107-1129

  8. Bondy, K. (2008). The Paradox of Power in CSR: A Case Study on Implementation. Journal of Business Ethics, 82(2).

  9. Brook, S. (2005). Corporate Social Responsibility and Strategic Management: The Prospects of Converging Discourses. Strategic Change Journal 14:401-411.

  10. Byerly, R. (2013). Business in Society: The Social Contract Revisited. Journal of Organizational Transformation and Social Change, 10 (1), 4-20

  11. Carrol, A. B. (2008). A History of Corporate Social Responsibility: Concept and Practices. The Oxford Handbook of Corporate Social Responsibility, Chapter 2:19-46.

  12. Carrol, A. B. (1991). The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility: Toward the Moral Management of Organizational Stakeholders. Business Horizons, 34(4), 39-48.

  13. Castello, B.M. (2013). Shareholder Theory. In: Idowu, S.O., Capaldi, N. & Gupta, A.D (Eds). Encyclopedia of Corporate Social Responsibility. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

  14. Cooper, D. & Schindler, P. (2008). Business Research Methods, 10th Edition, New York, McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

  15. Donaldson, L., and Davis, J. H. (1991). Stewardship theory or agency theory: CEO governance and shareholder returns. Australian Journal of Management, 16, 49–64.

  16. Dess, G.G., & Beard, D.W. (1984). Dimensions of organizational task environments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29, 52-73.  

  17. Dubach, B. & Machad, M. (2012). The Importance of Stakeholder Engagement in the Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights. International Review of the Red Cross, 94 (887), 1047-1068.

  18. Elkington, J. (1998). Accounting for the Triple Bottom Line. Measuring Business Excellence, 2(3), 18-22.

  19. Ensign, P.C. (2001). Value Chain Analysis and Competitive Advantage. Journal of general Management 2(1),18-24.

  20. Freeman, R.E. (1984). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Perspective. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

  21. Freeman, R., Harrison, J., Wicks, A., Parmer, B., & Colle, S. (2010). Stakeholder theory: The state of the art. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  22. Gazzola, P. & Colombo, G. (2014). CSR Integration into the Corporate Strategy. Cross-cultural Management Journal, XVI, 2(6), 331-338.

  23. Goll, I. & Rasheed, A.A. (2004). The Moderating Effect of Environment Munificence and Dynamism on the relationship between Discretionary Social Responsibility and Firm Performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 49,41-54.

  24. Gounder, C. & Venkateshwarlu, M. (2017). Shareholder Value Creation: An Empirical Analysis of Indian Banking Sector. Accounting and Finance Research, 6(1), 148-157.

  25. Goyal, P. et al (2013). Corporate Sustainability Performance and Firm Performance Research. Management Decision, 51(2), 361-379.

  26. Haksever, G., Chaganti, R. & Cook, R. (2004). A Model of Value Creation: Strategic View. Journal of Business Ethics, 49(3), 295-307.

  27. Haycock, K., Cheadle, A. & Bluestone, K.S. (2012). Strategic Thinking: Lessons for Leadership from the Literature. Library Leadership and Management Journal, 26(3 /4), 1-23

  28. Herrala, M., Pakkala, P. & Haapasalo, H. (2011). Value Creating Networks- A Conceptual Model and Analysis. University of Oulu, Research Reports in Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, 4/2011.

  29. Hofman, P.S., Moon, J. & Wu, B. (2017). Corporate Social Responsibility under Authoritarian Capitalism: Dynamics and Prospects of State-led and Society Driven CSR. Business and Strategy Journal, 56(5), 651-671.

  30. Howieson, J., Lawley, M. & Hastings, K. (2016). Value Chain Analysis. An Iterative and Relational Approach for Agri-Food Chains. Supply Chain Management, 2 (3), 352-326.

  31. Husted, B.W. & Allen, D.B. (2006). Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility and Value Creation Among Large Firms: Lesson from the Spanish Experience. Journal of International Business Studies 37(6), 838-849.

  32. Husted, B.W. & Allen, D.B. (2007). Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility in Multinational Enterprises: Antecedent and Value Creation. Journal of Business Ethics, 74(4), 345-361.

  33. Kerlinger, F. N., & Lee, H. B. (Eds.). (2000). Foundations of Behavioral Research. Orlando, FL: Harcourt College Publishers.

  34. Kilika, J. (2012). Institutional Context, Collaboration, Human Resource Development, Infrastructure and Performance of Universities in Kenya. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Kenya: University of Nairobi.

  35. King, A. & Zeithaml, C. (2001). Competencies and Firm Performance: Examining Causal Ambiguity Paradox. Strategic Management Journal 22 (1), 75-99.

  36. Li, J. & Guo, H. (2018). Discussion on The Key Issues of Strategic Management of Corporate Social Responsibility in China. Open Journal of Business and Management 6, 944-952

  37. Luxmore, S.R., Tang, Z. & Hull, C.E. (2012). When Corporate Social Responsibility Matters: An Empirical Investigation of Contingencies. International Journal of Corporate Governance 3, 143-162.

  38. Lynch, R.L. (1990). Corporate Strategy, 4th Edition. Pearson Education Publishers, Boston.

  39. Madhani, D. P. (2010). Resource Based View (RBV) of Competitive Advantage: An Overview. ICFAI University Press.

  40. Mainardes, W.E., Ferreira, J.J. & Raposo, M.L. (2014). Strategy and Strategic Management Concept: Are They recognized by Management Students. Economike a Management, 18(1), 43-61.

  41. Marshall, A. (1920). Principles of Economics, 8th Edition. New York, Palgrave Macmillan.

  42. Matten, D. (2008). “Implicit” and “Explicit” CSR: A Conceptual Framework for a Comparative Understanding of Corporate Social Responsibility. Academy of Management Review, 33 (2), 404-424.

  43. Mc William, A. & Siegel, D.S. (2011). Creating and Capturing Value: Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility, Resource Based Theory and Sustainable Competitive Advantage. Journal of Management, 37(5), 1480-1495.

  44. Mc William, A. & Siegel, D.S. (2006). Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategic Implications. Journal of Management, 43 (1), 0022-2380.

  45. Medis, A., Yong, D., Khatibi, A. & Azam, F. (2016). Corporate Social Responsibility a Business Strategy or a Social Endeavour: Review of Literature for Sustainability Approach. Journal of Economics & Sustainable Development, 19, 93-125.

  46. Meyer, K.E., Wright, M. & Pruthi, S. (2009). Managing Knowledge in Foreign Entry Strategies: A Resource Based Analysis. Strategic Management Journal, 30 (5), 557-574.

  47. Mikolajek-Gocejna, M. (2016). The Relationship Between Corporate Social Responsibility Na Corporate Financial Performance- Evidence from Empirical Studies. Comparative Economic Research, 19(4), 68-84.

  48. Militaru, G.U. & Ionescu, S. (2006). The Competitive Advantage of Corporate Social Responsibility. UPB Science Bulletin, Series D, 68(2), 89-103.

  49. Mintzberg, H. (1994). The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning. Harvard Business Review, January/February Issue 1994:1-14

  50. Murray, P. (2003). Organizational Learning, Competencies and Firm Performance: Empirical Observations. The Learning Organization, 10 (5), 305-316.

  51. Mwangangi, A. (2018). Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on Performance of manufacturing Firms in Kenya. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Kenya: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.

  52. Mwazumbo, P.M. (2016). Organizational Resources, Dynamic Capabilities, Environmental Dynamism and Organizational Performance at Large Manufacturing Companies in Kenya. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Kenya: University of Nairobi

  53. Nachmias, C.F. & Nachmias, D. (2004).  Research Methods in Social Sciences, 5th Edition. St. martin’s Press.

  54. Niehueser, W. (2008). Resource Dependency Theory: How Well does it Explain Behavior of Organizations? A European Perspective Human Resources, Labor Relations and Organizations, pp192-219.

  55. Ntiamoah, B.E., Eyyiri, P.O. & Kwamega, M. (2014). Corporate Social Responsibility Awareness, Firm Commitment and Organizational Performance. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 2, 91-101. `

  56. Pant, R. & Piansoongnern, O. (2017). Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Sustainable Competitive Advantage: A Case Study of Leading Noodle Companies in Nepal. International Journal of Social Sciences and Management, 9(4), 275-283.

  57. Porter, M.E. (1985). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, Free Press. New York, McMillan.

  58. Porter, M.E. (1996). What is Strategy. Harvard Business Review, Onpoint Article, November-December 1996:1-20.

  59. Porter, M.E. & Kramer M.R., (2006). Strategy and Society: The link Between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility. Harvard Business Review, 89(1), 62-77.

  60. Porter, M.E. & Kramer M.R., (2011). Creating Shared Value. Harvard Business Review, December 2006:1-14.

  61. Reinhardt, F.L. & Stavins, R.N. (2010). Corporate Social Responsibility, Business Strategy and the Environment. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 26(2),164-181.

  62. Roni, M. et al (2016). Sustainable Manufacturing Drivers and Firm Performance: Moderating Effect of Firm Size. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 4 (12)

  63. Rothaermel, F.T. (2017). Strategic Management, Third Edition. McGraw Hill Education, New York.

  64. Ruf, et al (2001). An Empirical Investigation of Relationship between Change in Corporate Social Performance: A stakeholder Theory Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics 32, 143.

  65. Saint, D.K. & Stanton, J. (2007). The Stakeholders and Shareholders Theory of Corporate Purpose. Work available at http:/

  66. Salvioni, D.M., Gennari, F. & Bosetti, L. (2016). Sustainability and Convergence: The Future of Corporate Governance Systems. Sustainability 2016, 8 (1203).

  67. Sekaran, U. (2003). Research Method for Business: A Skill Building Approach, 4th Edition. John Wiley, New York.

  68. Selyam, M. et al (2016). Determinants of Firm Performance: A subjective Model. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 4 (7), 90-100.

  69. Slapper, T.F. & Hall, T.J. (2011). The Triple Bottom Line: What is it and How Does It Work? Indiana Business Review Vol. 86 (1)

  70. Smith, W.L., Hillon, Y.C. & Liang, Y. (2018). Reassessing Measures of Sustainable Firm Performance: A Consultant Guide to Identifying Hidden Costs in Corporate Disclosures. Business Strategy and the Environment, 2018, 1-13.

  71. Talebenya, G., Salehi, M., Valipour, H. & Zahra, Y. (2014). An Empirical Study of Value Creation Criteria: A Case of Iran. Timisoara Journal of Economics.

  72. Taouab, O. & Issor, Z. (2019). Firm Performance: Definition and Measurement Models. European Scientific Journal, 15(1), 96-106

  73. Thompson, A. et al (2018). Crafting and Executing Strategy: The Quest for Competitive Advantage. McGraw Hill Education, New York.

  74. Wheelen, T. & Hunger, J. (2010). Concepts in Strategic Management and Business Policy: Achieving Sustainability. Pearson, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

  75. Windsor, D (2017). Value Creation Theory: Literature Review and Theory Assessment. Business and Society 360, 1, 75-100.

  76. Yeager et al (2014). Community Engagement in Higher Education: Policy Reforms and Practice. Sense Publishers, Boston.

  77. Yuan, W., Bao, Y. & Verbeke, A. (2011). Integrating CSR Initiatives in Business: An Organizing Framework. Journal of Business Ethics 101(1), 75-92.

  78. Zubac, A., Hubbard, G. & Johnson, L. (2010). The RBV and Value Creation: A Managerial Perspective. European Business Review, 22 (5), 515-538

  79. Zhang, J., Wang, Y. & Li, C. (2011). Maintainace Organization Value Chain Analysis and its Formalization. Applied Informatics and Communication, ICAIC 2011 Communication in Computer and Information Science, 226.