Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Economics and Business

Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2775-9237 (Online)

asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
open access

Published: 10 February 2021

Conceptualizing Strategic Innovation in a Firm Context: A Theoretical Review and Research Agenda

Josephine K. Mulaa, James M. Kilika, Mary J. Namusonge

Kenyatta University, Kenya

asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, management journal

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 113-136

Keywords: Business Model, Firm Context, Innovative Capacity, Organizational Structure, Strategic Innovation


The literature on strategic management recognizes the pivotal role played by strategic innovation as a strategic choice in organizations in order to create a sustainable competitive advantage. However, although there are emerging calls for the adoption of strategic innovation in a firm’s strategic management process, the concept of strategic innovation is not well understood. The scanty empirical literature reviewed has methodological and conceptual gaps that affect the generalizability of findings even in similar contexts. In this paper, the authors have attempted to review Strategic Innovation and argued that the emerging phenomena from its deployment in firms invite the role of the firm structure and innovative capacity as the firm seeks to enhance its chances of survival in a rapidly changing firm context. The conceptual, theoretical and empirical literature reviewed identified diverse issues that present a case for a theoretical model suitable to advance the current understanding of strategic innovation and the emerging phenomenon in firms. This paper therefore proposes an integrated theoretical model conceptualizing strategic innovation in a firm context and identifies relevant implications for future research.


  1. Abraham, J. L., & Knight, D. J. (2001). Strategic innovation. Strategy & Leadership, 29(1), 21–27. doi:10.1108/10878570110694625

  2. Achi, A., Salinesi, C., & Viscusi, G. (2016). Innovation capacity and the role of information systems: a qualitative study. Journal of Management Analytics, 3(4), 333–360.

  3. Adegbile A., Sarpong D. & Meissner D. (2017). Strategic foresight for innovation management: A Review and Research Agenda International. Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, 14(4), (2017) 1750019 (34 pages)

  4. Ahmady, G. A., Mehrpour, M., & Nikooravesh, A. (2016). Organizational Structure. Procedia -Social and Behavioral Sciences, 230, 455–462. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.09.057

  5. Alvarez, S.A., & Barney, J.B., (2007). Discovery and creation: alternative theories of entrepreneurial action. Strategy and Entrepreneurship Journal1, 11-26.

  6. Amabile, T.M., Collins, M. A., Conti, R., Phillips, E., Picariello, M., J Ruscio J. & Whitney, D. (1996). Creativity in context. Boulder, CO: Westview Press

  7. Amit R. & Schoemaker P.J. H. (1993). Strategic assets and organizational rent. Strategic management journal 14(1), 33-46

  8. Anderson, N., Potocnik, K. & Zhou, J. (2014). Innovation and creativity in organizations: a state-of-the science review and prospective commentary. Journal of Management, 40 (5), 1297-1333

  9. Andrews, R. (2010). Organizational social capital, structure and performance. Journal of human relations, 63(5), 583-608.

  10. Banbury, C.M. & Mitchell, W. (1995). The effect of introducing important incremental innovations on market share and business survival. Strategic Management Journal (summer special issue) 16, 161–182

  11. Barney, J. (1986). Strategic factor markets: expectations, luck, and business strategy. Management Science, 32(10), 1231-1241.

  12. Barney, J .B. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.

  13. Barney, J. B. (1989). Asset stock accumulation and sustained competitive advantage: A comment.Management Science, 35, 1511-1513.

  14. Barney, J. B. & Clark, D. N. (2007). Resource-based theory: Creating and sustaining competitive advantage. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

  15. Belassi, W. &. Fadlalla A., (1998), An integrative framework for FMS diffusion. Omega, 26: 699-713.

  16. Bicchieri C. & Sillari G. (2005). Game Theory and Decision Theory. In Borchert Donald (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2nd ed., Detroit: Macmillan.

  17. Bolton, P, & Dewatripont M (1994). The Firm as a Communication Network. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1994, 109(4), 809-839.

  18. Bourne, M., Melnyk S., & Bititci U. S., (2018) "Performance measurement and management: theory and practice", International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 38 Issue: 11, pp.2010-2021,

  19. Bucherer, E., Eisert, U, & Gassmann, O., (2012), Towards systematic business mmodel innovation: Lessons from product innovation management. Creativity and innovation management, 21, 183-198.

  20. Burns,T., & Stalker G. M., (1961), The management of innovation, London: Tavistock.

  21. Burrus, R. T., Edward Graham, J., & Jones, A. T. (2018). Regional innovation and firm performance. Journal of Business Research, 88, 357–362,

  22. Carayannis E. G & Provance M. (2018). Measuring firm innovativeness: towards a composite innovation index built on firm innovative posture, propensity and performance attributes, International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development, 1 (1), 2008

  23. Chandler, A. D. (1962). Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

  24. Chang, P.L., & Lung S. S. C., (2002), Organizational changes for advanced manufacturing technology infusion: An empirical study. Int. J. Manage., 19, 206-217.

  25. Chen, C.J., Huang, J.W. & Hsiao, Y.C. (2010), “Knowledge management and innovativeness: the role of organizational climate and structure”, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 31 No. 8, pp. 848-870

  26. Chesbrough, H. W., (2010), Business model innovation: Opportunities and barriers. Long Range Planning, 43, 354-363.

  27. Child, J. (1972). Organizational structure, environment and performance—the Role of Strategic Choice, Sociology, 6, 1-22.

  28. Christensen C. M. (1997). The Innovator's Dilemma: When new technologies cause great firms to fail. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1997.

  29. Clauss, T. (2016). Measuring business model innovation: Conceptualization, scale development, and proof of performance. R&D Management, 47(3), 385–403. doi:10.1111/radm.12186

  30. Cresswell, K., & Sheikh, A, (2013), Organizational issues in the implementation and adoption of health information technology innovations: an interpretative review. International journal of medical information 2013 May 82(5):73-86. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2012.10.007.

  31. Daft, R. (1995). Organization Theory & Design, (5th ed.). New York, West Publishing Company.

  32. Daft, J., & Albers, S. (2013), A conceptual framework for measuring airline business model convergence. Journal of Air Transport Management, 28, 47–54. doi:10.1016/j.jairtraman.2012.12.010

  33. Damanpour F. (1991). Organizational innovation: A meta-analysis of effects of determinants and moderators: The Academy of Management Journal, 34 (3) (Sep., 1991), 555-590.

  34. Das, P., Verburg, R., Verbraeck, A., & Bonebakker, L. (2018), Barriers to innovation within large financial services firms. An in-depth study into disruptive and radical innovation projects at a bank: European Journal of Innovation Management, 21(1), 96–112. doi:10.1108/ejim-03-2017-0028

  35. Dedahanov, A. T., Rhee, C., & Yoon, J. (2017). Organizational structure and innovation performance. Career Development International, 22(4), 334–350. doi:10.1108/cdi-12-2016-0234.

  36. Dekoulou, P., & Trivellas, P. (2017). Organizational structure, innovation performance and customer relationship value in the Greek advertising and media industry. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 32(3), 385–397. doi:10.1108/jbim-07-2015-0135

  37. Denicolai, S., Zucchella A., & Moretti, F. (2018). Not so similar after all: Exploring the diversity of strategic orientations for innovation, International Journal of Innovation Management, 22(04), 1850036.

  38. De Reuver, M., Bouwman, H. & MacInnes, I. (2009). Business models dynamics for start-ups and innovating e-businesses. International journal of electron business, (2009)7, 269–286.

  39. Dessein W, & Santos, T. (2006). Adaptive organizations. Journal of Political Economy, 2006, 114(5), 956-995.

  40. Dogan E. (2017). A strategic approach to innovation. Journal of Management, Marketing and Logistics -JMML (2017), .4(3), 290-300

  41. Erol E. & Ordu B. (2019). Organizational Structure Scale – University Version European journal of educational research, 7(4), 775-803- ISSN: 2165-8714

  42. Exposito A. & Sanchis-Llopis J. A. (2018). Innovation and business performance for Spanish SMEs: New evidence from a multi-dimensional approach, International Small Business Journal: Researching Entrepreneurship 1–21

  43. Faghih, N., Dastourian, B., Sajadi, S. M., Henten, A., & Foroudi, P. (2018). A framework for business model with strategic innovation in ICT firms. The Bottom Line, 31(1), 16–41

  44. Felin, T., & Powell, T. C. (2016). Designing Organizations for Dynamic Capabilities. California Management Review, 58(4), 78–96. doi:10.1525/cmr.2016.58.4.78

  45. Gans, J., & Stern, S., (2003. Assessing Australia’s innovative capacity in the 21st century. (Melbourne Business School and Intellectual Property Research Institute of Australia, University of Melbourne); Stern (Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University). Contact:

  46. Garcia R. & Calantone, R. (2002). A critical look at technological innovation typology and innovativeness terminology: a literature review. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 19(2), 110-132.

  47. Geckil I. &Anderson P. (2010). Applied Game Theory and Strategic Behavior. London: CRC Press.

  48. Geroski, P. (1998). Thinking creatively about your market: crisps, perfume and business strategy. Business Strategy Review 9(2), 1–10.

  49. Gerwin, D. & Moffat, L. (1997). Authorizing processes changing team autonomy during new product development. Journal of engineering technology management, 14 (1997), 291–313.

  50. Gobble, M. A. M. (2016). Defining disruptive innovation. Research-Technology Management, 59(4), 66-71.

  51. Grafstrom J. & Lindman A. (2018). Invention, Innovation and diffusion in the European windpower sector. Journal of technological forecasting and social change, 114 (2017), 179-191

  52. Grant, R. M. (2010). Contemporary strategy analysis (7th ed.). West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  53. Greve H., Hitt M. A., Ireland R. D & Camp M. (2002). Strategic entrepreneurship; creating a new mindset, Administrative Science Quarterly 48(2):348 · June 2003

  54. Gurkan, G. C., & Tukelturk, S. A., (2017). Strategies for innovative organization structure: Innovative culture and open innovation. Global Business Strategies in Crisis, Contributions to Management Science, 185-199. Doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-44591-5_13.

  55. Hage, J., & Aiken, M. (1967). Relationship of centralization to other structural properties. Administrative Science Quarterly, 12, 72-92.

  56. Hamel, G. (2000). Leading the Revolution. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press

  57. Ildikó-Csilla T. (2018). Strategic innovation management through organizational change. Journal of Innovation & Business Best Practice, (2018), Article ID 863719. Doi: 10.5171/2018.863719

  58. Iplik F. N., Topsakal Y. & Dogan O. (2014). Strategic innovation: An empirical study on hotel firms operating in Antalya Region, Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR), An International Journal of Akdeniz University Tourism Faculty 2(1): 16-29, 2014

  59. Iranzadeh S., Nojehdeh S. H. and Emami N. N. (2017), The Impact of the Implication of Balanced Scorecard Model (BSC) in Performance of the Post Company. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 15(4), 188-196.

  60. James, S. D., Leiblein, M. J. & Lu, S. (2013). How firms capture value from their innovations. Journal of management, 39(5), 1123-1155. doi:1177/01492063113488211.

  61. Kalay, F., & Lynn G. S., (2015), The impact of strategic innovation management practices on firm innovation performance, Research journal of business management, 2 (3), 412-429

  62. Kanyuga, L. (2019). Influence of strategic innovation on performance of telecommunication firms: A case of Safaricom Company. Journal of Strategic Management, 3(1), 21-39.

  63. Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P., (1996), Linking the Balanced Scorecard to Strategy, California Management Review, 39(1), 53-79. https://doi:10.2307/41165876

  64. Karia S., (2013). Strategic innovation; A review and a theoretical framework. Unpublished student thesis- University of Twente,

  65. Kariuki, J., N., (2014), The Effect of Strategic Innovation on Performance of Mobile Telecommunication Firms in Kenya. Master’s Thesis University of Nairobi.

  66. Keupp, M. M., Palmié, M., & Gassmann, O. (2011). The strategic management of innovation: A systematic review and paths for future research. International journal of management reviews, 14(4), 367–390. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2370.2011.00321.x

  67. Kim, C.W. & Mauborgne, R. (1997a). Value innovation: the strategic logic of high growth. Harvard Business Review 75(1), 102–12.

  68. Kindström, D., & Kowalkowski, C., (2014), Service innovation in product-centric firms: a multidimensional business model perspective", Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 29(2), 96-111, doi:10.1108/JBIM-08-2013-0165

  69. Koc, T. (2007). Organizational determinants of innovation capacity in software companies. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 53(3), 373–385

  70. Kodama, M., (2017), Developing strategic innovation in large corporations—The dynamic capability view of the firm. doi: 10.1002/kpm.1554

  71. Kodama, M., (2018), Sustainable growth through strategic innovation: Driving congruence in capabilities. Edward Elgar Publishing.

  72. Krinsky, R.J., &Jenkins, A.C., (1997), When worlds collide: the uneasy fusion of strategy and innovation. Strategy & Leadership 25(4), 36–41.

  73. Lawrence, P. R., & J. W. Lorsch (1967). Differentiation and Integration in Complex Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly 12, 1-47.

  74. Lee, J., Min, J., & Lee, H. (2016). The Effect of Organizational Structure on Open Innovation: A  Quadratic Equation. Procedia Computer Science, 91, 492–501. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2016.07.128

  75. Lehmann-Ortga, L. & Schoetti, J. (2005). From buzzword to managerial tool: The role of business model in strategic innovation. CLADEA, Santiago Chile, October 2005

  76. Leih, S., Linden, G., & Teece, D. J. (2015). Business innovation and organizational design. Business model innovation, 24–42. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198701873.003.0002

  77. López-Nicolás C., & Merono-Cerdán A.L., (2011). Strategic knowledge management, innovation and performance. International. Journal of Information Management, 31 (2011) 502–509

  78. Markides, C., (1997), Strategic innovations. Sloan Management Review 38(3), 9–23.

  79. Markides, C., (1999), A dynamic view of strategy. Sloan Management Review 40(3), 55–63.

  80. Markides, C., (2006), Disruptive Innovation: In Need of Better Theory. Product Innovation Management, 23, 19-25. Martínez-León, I.M. and Martínez-Garcia, J.A. (2011), “The influence of organizational structure on organizational learning”, International Journal of Manpower, 32 (5/6), 537-566

  81. Markides, C. & Oyon, D., (2010). What to do against disruptive business models (when and how to play two games at once. MIT Sloan Management Review, 51(4), 25-32.

  82. Marín-Idárraga, D. A., & Cuartas, J. C. (2016). Organizational structure and innovation: analysis from the strategic co-alignment. Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, 29(4), 388–406. doi:10.1108/arla-11-2015-0303

  83. Martínez-León, I.M. & Martínez-Garcia, J.A. (2011). The influence of organizational structure on organizational learning. International Journal of Manpower, 32 (5/6), 537-566.

  84. Martinsons, M.,G., (1993), Strategic innovation: a lifeboat for planning in turbulent waters. Management Decisions 31(8), 4–11.

  85. McGrath, G. R., (2010). Business Models: A Discovery Driven Approach. Long Range Planning 43 (2010) 247-261

  86. Mckenzie K. D. (2014). The drivers of strategic innovation: An empirical study of the South African financial industry. Thesis- Department of Business Management Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences-2014

  87. Mintzberg, H. (1979). The Structuring of Organization, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

  88. Mintzberg, H. (1983). Structure in Fives: Designing Effective Organizations, Prentice Hall, NJ.

  89. Mintzberg, H., Ahlstrand, B. & Lampel, J. (1998). Strategy Safari: A Guided Tour through the Wilds of Strategic Management. Free Press, New York.

  90. Muchemi, C., & Moronge, M., (2017), Effects of implementation of strategic innovation on the performance of commercial banks in Kenya; A case study of Equity bank. The Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management, 4(2), Article 35

  91. Muturi, P., K., (2015), Organizational Structure and Internal Processes of Large Manufacturing Firms in Kenya; Journal for Studies in Management and Planning, 1(7), 612-622

  92. Nachmias, F.& Nachmias, D. (2004). Research methods in the social sciences (English). New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.

  93. Nandakumar, M. K. & Ghobdian, A. & Reagan, N. (2011). Generic strategies and performance evidence from manufacturing firm. International journal of productivity and performance management, 60(3), 222-251.

  94. Neely, A.D. & Hii, H.H. (1999). The Innovative Capacity of Firms, Government Office for the Eastern Region

  95. Neely, A.D. & Hii, J. (2012). The Innovative Capacity of Firms, Nang Yan business journal . 1(1), 47-53

  96. Nieto, M. J. & Santamaria , L. (2006). The importance of diverse collaboration networks for the novelty of production innovation. Journal of technovation.27(6-7), 367-377.,technovation.2006.10.001

  97. Noble, C.H. Sinha, R.K. & Kumar, A. (2002). Market Orientation and Alternative Strategic Orientations: A Longitudinal Assessment of Performance Implications. Journal of marketing, 2002 (66), 25–39

  98. Nybakk, E. & Jenssen, J. I., (2012). Innovation strategy, working climate and financial performance in traditional manufacturing firms: An empirical analysis.Journal of Innovation Management, 16(2) (April 2012)

  99. Oliva, F. L., Semensato B. I., Prioste D. B., Winandy E. J. L., Bution J. L., Henrique M., Couto G., Bottacin M. A., Maria Laura Ferranty Mac Lennan, Pedro Marins Freire Teberga, Ricardo Fernandes Santos, Singh S. K., Fabiani da Silva S.,& Massaini S. A, (2018) Innovation in the main Brazilian business sectors: characteristics, types and comparison  of innovation, Journal of Knowledge Management, 2018- 0159

  100. Ortt, J. R., & Duin, P. A., (2008), The evolution of innovation management towards contextual innovation", European Journal of Innovation Management,11 (4), 522-538. doi:10.1108/14601060810911147

  101. Ouma, P., and Kilika, J. M., (2018), Innovation strategies, first mover advantage and performance in the context of the microfinance sector: A review of literature. International Journal of Business and Management, 13 (7), 195-209

  102. Ozkan-Canbolat, E., Beraha, A., & Bas, A. (2016). Application of evolutionary game theory to strategic innovation. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 235, 685–693. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.11.069.

  103. Pennings, J. M. (1998). Structural contingency theory: (In P. J. D. Drienth, Thierry and C. J. de Wolff (Ed) Handbook of work and organizational psychology (2nd ed), Handbook of  work and organizational psychology (pp 39-60) Hove, England Psychology press/Er/baum (UK) Taylor & Francis

  104. Penrose, E. (1959). The theory of the growth of the firm. New York, NY: John Wiley.

  105. Pertusa‐Ortega, E. M., Molina‐Azorín, J. F., & Claver‐Cortés, E. (2010). Competitive strategy, structure and firm performance, Management Decision, 48(8), 1282–1303.

  106. Pilisi, H., N., Namusonge, G., S., & Ng’eno J., K., (2016), The Influence of Strategic Innovations Capability on Performance of Vendor Managed Retail Medium and Large Supermarkets in Nairobi City County in Kenya; Global journal of interdisciplinary social sciences, (July-August 2016), 5(4),63-71

  107. Pisano G. P., (2015). You need an innovation strategy. Havard business review, 93(6) (June 2015), 44–54.

  108. Porter, M. (1980). Competitive strategy. New York, NY: Free Press.

  109. Porter, Michael E., Scott Stern & the Council on Competitiveness (1999). The New Challenge to America’s Prosperity: Findings from the Innovation Index, COC: Washington.

  110. Prajogo, D. I., & McDermott, C.M., (2014). Antecedents of service innovation in SMEs: comparing the effects of external and internal factors. Journal of Small Business Management, 52(3), 521-540.

  111. Prajogo, D. I. (2016). The strategic fit between innovation strategies and business environment in delivering business performance. International journal of production economics, 171, 241-249.

  112. Pugh, D.S., Hickson, D.J., Hinings, C.R. & Turner, C. (1968). Dimensions of organization structures. Administrative Science Quarterly, 13(1), 65‐105.

  113. Radner, R. (1993). The organization of decentralized information processing. Econometrica, 1993, 61(5), 1109-46

  114. Research Review, Special Issue, 36(10). Evaluations in advances in management accounting. Published online: 23 Nov 2016; 123-165.

  115. Rhee, J., Park, T. & Lee, D. (2010). Drivers of innovativeness and performance for innovative SMEs in South Korea: Mediation of learning orientation. Journal of technovation, 30, 65-75.

  116. Richard, P. J., Devinney, T. M., Yip, G. S & Johnson, G. (2009). Measuring Organizational Performance: Towards Methodological Best Practice. Journal of Management 2009 (35), 718 originally published online 6 February 2009. doi: 10.1177/0149206308330560.

  117. Robbins, S.P. (1996). Organizational behaviour: Concepts, controversies, applications, Seventh editions, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Practice Hall International Inc.

  118. Sammut-Bonnici, T. & Paroutis, S. (2013). Developing a dominant Logic of strategic innovation management. Management Research Review, 36(10), 924-938

  119. Sanchez, A., Lago, A., Ferras, X., & Ribera, J. (2011), Innovation management practices, strategic adaptation, and business results: Evidence from the electronics industry. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation, 6(2), 14-38.

  120. Sandvik, L., Duhan, D. F. & Sandvik, K. (2014). Innovativeness and profitability: an empirical investigation in the Norwegian hotel industry. Cornell hospitality quarterly, 55(2), 165-185.

  121. Saunila, M. (2016) Performance measurement approach for innovation capability in SMEs. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 65(2), 162-176.

  122. Saunila, M.(2017). Understanding innovation performance measurement in SMEs. Measuring Business Excellence, 21(1), 1-16. doi:10.1108/mbe-01-2016-0005.

  123. Schiavi, G. S., & Behr, A. (2018). Emerging technologies and new business models: a review on disruptive business models. Innovation & Management Review. doi:10.1108/inmr-03-2018-0013.

  124. Schlegelmich B. B., Diamantopoulus A. & Kreuz P. (2003). Strategic innovation: the construct, its drivers and its strategic outcomes, Journal of Strategic Marketing, 11(2), 117-132, doi: 10.1080/0965254032000102948.

  125. Schroeder H., (2013), Strategic innovation for business performance: The art and science of transformation, Technology Innovation Management Review, September 2013, 6-12

  126. Schumpeter, J. (1912/1934). The theory of economic development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  127. Schumpeter, J. (1942). Capitalism, socialism and democracy. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

  128. Selvam M., Gayathri J., Vasanth V., Lingaraja K. and Marxiaoli S. (2016). Determinants of firm performance: A subjective model: International Journal of Social Science Studies, 4 (7), July 2016

  129. Sniukas, M., Lee, P. & Morasky, M. (2016). The art of opportunity: How to build growth and ventures through strategic innovation and visual thinking. John Wiley & Sons, (2016)

  130. Sousa, C.M.P., Martínez-López, F.J. & Coelho, F. (2008). The determinants of export performance: a review of the research in the literature between 1998 and 2005. International Journal of Management Reviews, 10(4), 343-374.

  131. Suarez-Villa, L. (2007). Networks, Innovative Capacity and the Experimental Firm: Implications for Regional Development Policy. Spatial Interaction and Information Strategies for Emerging European Networks, edited by Maria Giaoutzi and Peter Nijkamp. Avebury: Ashgate, 13-35

  132. Sundgren, M., Dimenäs, E., Gustafson, J. & Selart, M. (2005). Drivers of organizational creativity: A path model of creative climate in pharmaceutical R&D. R&D Management, 35(4), 359–374

  133. Teece D. J (2007). Explicating dynamic capabilities: the nature and microfoundations of (sustainable) enterprise performance, Strategic management journal, 28(13), 1319-1350.

  134. Teece D. J (2010). Business models, Business strategy and innovation. Journal of Long range planning. 43(2-3), 172-194

  135. Teece, D. J. (2017). A capability theory of the firm: an economics and (Strategic) management perspective. New Zealand Economic Papers, 1-43. doi:10.1080/00779954.2017.1371208.

  136. Teece, D., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7), 509-533.

  137. Teece D. J. & Pisano P. G. (1994). The Dynamic Capabilities of Firms: An Introduction in Industrial and Corporate Change 3(3):537-556 · January 1994 Thomas J., Cicmil S. and George S. (2012), Learning from project management implementation by applying the innovation lens. Project management journal,43(6), 70-87.

  138. Tidd, J. & Bessant J. (2009). Managing Innovation: Integrating Technological. Market and Organizational Change, 4th Ed. Chichester: Wiley.

  139. Troachim, W. M. K. & Linton, R. (1986). Conceptualization for planning and evaluation. Evaluation and Program planning, 19(1), 289-308.

  140. Varadarajan, R. (2015). Strategic marketing, marketing strategy and market strategy. AMS Review, 5 (3-4), 78-90.

  141. Varadarajan, R. (2018), Innovation, Innovation Strategy, and Strategic Innovation, in (ed.) Innovation and Strategy (Review of Marketing Research, Volume (15) Emerald Publishing Limited, 143 – 166.

  142. Wacker, J.G. (1998). A definition of theory: research guidelines for different theory-building research methods in operations management. Journal of operation management, 1998(16), 361–385

  143. Wang, C. L. & Ahmed P. K., (2004). The development and validation of the organizational innovativeness construct using confirmatory factor analysis. European journal of innovation management, 7(4), 303-313

  144. Wang, H., & Kimble, C. (2016). How External Factors Influence Business Model Innovation: A Study of the Bosch Group and the Chinese Automotive Aftermarket. Global Business and Organizational Excellence, 35(6), 53–64. doi:10.1002/joe.21712

  145. Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5(2), 171-180.

  146. West, M. A. & Farr, J. L. (1989). Innovation at work: Psychological perspectives. Social Behaviour, 4(1), 15–30.

  147. Wongrassamee S, Gardner P.D., Simmons GEL (2003). Performance Measuring Tools: The Balanced scorecard and the EFQM Excellence Model. Measuring Business Excellence. 7(1), 14-29.

  148. Yang, X. (2014). Different choice of strategic innovation among companies in China market. Journal of science and technology policy management, 5(2), 106-121. doi:10.1108/JSTPM-02-2014-0006

  149. Yang Y. Q., Wang, H.Y., Zhu, G.S. & Wu, G. S. (2012). What are the effective strategic orientations for new product success under different environments? An empirical study of Chinese businesses. Journal of Product Innovation Management,29, 166-179.

  150. Zhang, W., Daim, T. & Zhang, Q. (2018). Understanding the disruptive business model innovation of E-business microcredit: a comparative case study in China. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 30(7), 765-777