On Artificial Intelligence’s Razor’s Edge: On the Future of Democracy and Society in the Artificial Age

Journal of Economics and Business

ISSN 2615-3726 (Online)

ISSN 2621-5667 (Print)

Published: 15 March 2019

On Artificial Intelligence’s Razor’s Edge: On the Future of Democracy and Society in the Artificial Age

Julia M. Puaschunder

Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis, USA

Download Full-Text Pdf

10.31014/aior.1992.02.01.71

Abstract

The introduction of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in our contemporary society imposes historically unique challenges for humankind. The emerging autonomy of AI holds unique potentials of the eternal life of robots, AI and algorithms alongside unprecedented economic superiority, data storage, and computational advantages. However, the introduction of AI to society also raises ethical questions. What is the social impact of robots, algorithms, blockchain and AI entering the workforce and our daily lives on the economy and human society? Should AI become eternal or is there a virtue in switching off AI at a certain point? If so, we may have to define a ‘virtue of killing' and a ‘right to destroy' that may draw from legal but also philosophical sources to answer the question how to handle the abyss of killing with ethical grace and fair style. In light of robots already having gained citizenship and being attributed as quasi-human under Common Law jurisdiction, should AI and robots be granted full citizen rights – such as voting rights? Or should we simply reap the benefits of AI and consider to define a democracy with different classes having diversified access to public choice and voting – as practiced in the ancient Athenian city-state, which became the cradle of Western civilization and democratic traditions spread around the globe. Or should we legally justify AI slaves to economically reap their benefits, as was common in ancient Rome, which became the Roman Law legal foundation for Continental and some of Scandinavian Law traditions and which inspired very many different codifications around the world. Finally, we may also draw from the Code Napoléon, the French Code Civil established under Napoleon in 1804, which defined male and female into two classes of human with substantial right and power differences, and – to this day – accounts for one of the few documents that have influenced the whole world in legal and societal ways. In asking critical questions and unraveling the ethical boundary conditions of our future artificial world, the paper thereby takes a descriptive – afar from normative – theoretical angle targeted at aiding a successful introduction of AI into our contemporary workforce, democracy, and society.

References

  1. Acevedo, S., Mrkaic, M, Novta, N., Poplawski-Ribeiro, M., Pugacheva, E. & Topalova, P. (2018). How can low income countries cope? The effects of weather shocks on economic activity. Presentation delivered at The New School Economics of Climate Change Project, New York: The New School, April 12.

  2. Alemi, M., Meghdari, A., Saffari, E. 2017. “RoMa: A Hi-tech Robotic Mannequin for the Fashion Industry.” Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS): Social Robotics 10652: 209-219, Springer, Nov. 2017. 

  3. Altenburg, T. & Assmann, C. (2018). United Nations Environment Programme Report on Green Industrial Policy: Concept, Policies, Country Experiences (2018). Geneva, Bonn: United Nations: United Nations Environment Programme & German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik.

  4. Altenburg, T. & Rodrik, D. (2018). Green industrial policy: Accelerating structural change towards wealthy green economies. In T. Altenburg & C. Assmann (Eds.), United Nations Environment Programme Report on Green Industrial Policy: Concept, Policies, Country Experiences, pp. 2-20. Geneva, Bonn: United Nations: United Nations Environment Programme & German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik.

  5. Andreoni, J., Erard, B. & Feinstein, J.S. (1998). Tax compliance. Journal of Economic Literature, 36, 2, 818-860.

  6. Armstrong, Stuart & Kaj Sotala. 2012. "How We're Predicting AI--or Failing to," in Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams, edited by Jan Romportl, 52. Pilsen: University of West Bohemia.

  7. Asimov, I. 1942. Runaround, In I, Robot, 33 – 51. London: Grafton Books.

  8. Asimov, I. 1950. I, Robot (2004 ed.). New York: Bantam Dell.

  9. Asimov, I. 1978. My own view. In The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, ed. Robert Holdstock, N.Y.: St. Martin’s Press.

  10. Asimov, I. 1985. Robots and Empire. New York: Doubleday.

  11. Asmundson, I. (2017). Financial services: Getting the goods. IMF entry retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/basics/finserv.htm

  12. Bai, S., Koong, K. & Valenzuela, E. (2018). The dynamic impact of oil price shocks on stock returns: Evidence from U.S. energy companies in the value chain. 6th International Symposium on Environment Energy & Finance Issues, ISEFI 2018, Paris, France, May 24-25.

  13. Barrat, James. 2013. Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Human Era. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

  14. Barro, R. (1990). Government spending in a simple model of endogenous growth. Journal of Political Economy, 98, 103-125.

  15. Bederman, D.J. (2004). International law in antiquity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

  16. Beerbaum, D. & Puaschunder, J.M. (2018). A behavioral economics approach to digitalisation: The case of a principles-based taxonomy. Proceedings of the 10th International RAIS Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities; Published by Atlantis Press; Part of Series: ASSEHR; ISSN: 2352-5398, Volume 211.

  17. Berger, A. (1991). Encyclopedic Dictionary of Roman Law. American Philosophical Society.

  18. Bienenfeld, M. (1988). Regularity in price changes as an effect of changes in distribution. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 12, 247-255.

  19. Bonato, M. (2018). Realized correlations, betas and volatility spillover in the agricultural commodity market: What has changed? 6th International Symposium on Environment Energy & Finance Issues, ISEFI 2018, Paris, France, May 24-25.

  20. Brenner, R. (2002). American economic revival, In R. Brenner, The Boom, and the Bubble: The US in the World Economy. New York: Verso.

  21. Brenner, R. (2006). From boom to downturn, In R. Brenner, The Economics of Global Turbulence: The Advanced Capitalist Economies from Long Boom to Long Downturn, 1945-2005. New York: Verso.

  22. Brenner, R. (2006). The puzzle of the long downturn, In R. Brenner, The Economics of Global Turbulence: The Advanced Capitalist Economies from Long Boom to Long Downturn, 1945-2005. New York: Verso.

  23. Bürgenmeier, B. (1994). Environmental policy: Beyond the economic dimension. In B. Bürgenmeier (Ed.), Economy, environment, and technology: A socio-economic approach, pp. 166-175. New York, NY: Armonk Sharpe.

  24. Burke, M., Hsiang, S.M. & Miguel, E. (2015). Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production. Nature, 527, 235-239.

  25. Căpek, K. 1921. Rossum’s Universal Robots (2004 ed.), trans. Claudia Novack. New York: Penguin Group.

  26. Cellan-Jones, R., 2014. "Stephen Hawking Warns Artificial Intelligence Could End Mankind," BBC News, 2 December 2014.  www.bbc.com/news/technology-30290540.

  27. Centeno, M.A., & Tham, A. (2012).The emergence of risk in the global system. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University working paper.

  28. Centeno, M.A., Creager, A.N., Elga, A., Felton, E., Katz, St.N., Massey, W.A. & Shapiro, J.N. (2013). Global systemic risk: Proposal for a research community. Princeton University, NJ: Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies working paper.

  29. Chancel, L. & Piketty, Th. (2015). Carbon and inequality: From Kyoto to Paris. Paris, France: Paris School of Economics.

  30. Chilcote, E.B. (1997). Interindustry structure, relative prices, and productivity: An input-output study of the U.S. and O.E.C.D countries. Doctoral Thesis. New York, NY: The New School for Social Research Department of Economics.

  31. Cialdini, R.B. (1996). Social influence and the triple tumor structure of organizational dishonesty. In D.M. Messick and A.E. Tenbrunsel (Eds.), Codes of Conduct, pp. 44-58. New York, NY: Sage.

  32. Cifarelli, G. & Paesani, P. (2018). Fundamentalists, chartists, and hedgers: A non-linear dynamic model of futures oil pricing: Theory and empirical evidence. 6th International Symposium on Environment Energy & Finance Issues, ISEFI 2018, Paris, France, May 24-25.

  33. Clancy, Erin. 1998. “The Tragedy of the Global Commons.” Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 5(2): 601-19.

  34. Cockshott, W.P. & Cottrell, A. (1993). Towards a new socialism. Nottingham, UK: Spokesman.

  35. Committee on Legal Affairs. 2016. Draft Report with Recommendations to the Commission on Civil Law Rules on Robotics. May 31. 2015/2103(INL)

  36. Copeland, Jack. 2000. “What is Artificial Intelligence?” AlanTuring.net, May. www.alanturing.net/turing_archive/pages/ Reference%20Articles/what_is_AI/What%20is%20AI02.html

  37. Critchley, S. (2015). Notes on suicide. Fitzcarraldo.

  38. Dawes, R.M. (1980). Social dilemmas. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 1, 169-193.

  39. Dillon, M. & Garland, L. (2005). Ancient Rome: From the early republic to the assassination of Julius Caesar. London, UK: Routledge.

  40. Dowell, Ryan. 2018. “Fundamental Protections for Non-Biological Intelligences or: How we Learn to Stop Worrying and Love our Robot Brethren.” Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology 19(1): 305-36.

  41. Dukhanina, E., Leveque, F. & Massol, O. (2018). Policy measures targeting a more integrated gas market: Impact on prices and arbitrage activity. Retrieved from https://www.eeg.tuwien.ac.at/conference/iaee2017/files/paper/649_Dukhanina_fullpaper_2017-06-30_21-58.pdf

  42. Ekholm, T. (2018). Climatic cost-benefit analysis under uncertainty and learning on climate sensitivity and damages. 6th International Symposium on Environment Energy & Finance Issues, ISEFI 2018, Paris, France, May 24-25.

  43. Elgouacem, A. & Legrand, N. (2018). The delaying effect of storage on investment. Evidence from the crude oil sector. 6th International Symposium on Environment Energy & Finance Issues, ISEFI 2018, Paris, France, May 24-25.

  44. Emmert, H. (2018). The melting point: The economics and environmental impact of the winter sports industry. Unpublished working paper, Economics of the Environment, The New School, New York.

  45. Environmental Defense Fund (2018). How climate change plunders the planet: A warming earth disturbs weather, people, animals and much more. Retrieved from https://www.edf.org/climate/how-climate-change-plunders-planet

  46. Esposito, M., Haider, A., Semmler, W. & Samaan, D. (2018). Enhancing job creation through the green transformation. In T. Altenburg & C. Assmann (Eds.), United Nations Environment Programme Report on Green Industrial Policy: Concept, Policies, Country Experiences, pp. 50-68. Geneva, Bonn: United Nations: United Nations Environment Programme & German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik.

  47. EU Committee on Legal Affairs. 2016. "Draft Report with Recommendations to the Commission on Civil Law Rules on Robotics," May 31.

  48. Feld, L.P. & Frey, B.S. (2002). Trust breeds trust: How taxpayers are treated. Economics of Governance, 3, 2, 87-99.

  49. Figuerola-Ferretti, I. & Cervera, I. (2018). Recent credit risk and bubble behavior in the corporate energy sector. Retrieved from https://repositorio.comillas.edu/jspui/handle/11531/26571

  50. Filip, O., Janda, K., Kristoufek, L. & Zilberman, D. (2018). Food versus fuel: An updated and expanded evidence. CAMA working paper 73. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3070704

  51. Foley, D. (2007). The economic fundamentals of global warming. Santa Fe, NM: Santa Fe Instiute Working paper 07-12-044. Retrieved from https://www.santafe.edu/research/results/working-papers/the-economic-fundamentals-of-global-warming

  52. Fotopoulos, T. (1997). Towards an inclusive democracy. Cassel.

  53. Frey, B.S. (1992). Tertium datur: Pricing, regulation and intrinsic motivation. Kyklos, 45, 2, 161-184.

  54. Frey, B.S. (1997). Not just for the money: An economic theory of personal motivation. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

  55. Galeon, Dom & Christianna Reedy. 2017. “Kurzweil Claims That the Singularity Will Happen by 2045.” Futurism, October 5, futurism.com/kurzweil-claims-that-the-singularity-will-happen-by-2045/.

  56. Gamauf, R. (2009). Slaves doing business: The role of Roman Law in the economy of a Roman household. European Review of History, 16, 3, 331-346.

  57. Ganepola, C., Garrett, I. & Cho, S. (2018). Oil prices, discount rate news and cash flow news. 6th International Symposium on Environment Energy & Finance Issues, ISEFI 2018, Paris, France, May 24-25.

  58. Gonglewski, M. & Helm, A. (2010). An examination of business case methodology: Pedagogical synergies from two disciplines. Global Business Languages, 15, 3, 17-31.

  59. Greiner, A. & Semmler, W. (2008). The global environment, natural resources, and economic growth. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

  60. Harris, W.V. (2000). Trade. In: The Cambridge Ancient History: The High Empire A.D. 70-192, p. 11. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

  61. Hasseldine, J.D. (1998). Prospect theory and tax reporting decisions: Implications for tax administrators. International Bureau of Fiscal Documentation, 52, 11, 501-505.

  62. Hayes, A. (2018). Decentralized banking: Monetary technocracy in the digital age. Social Science Research Network working paper retrievable at https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2807476

  63. Held, D. & McGrew, A.G. (2007). A new world economic order? Global markets and state power: Beyond globalization/anti-globalization: Beyond the great divide. New York, NY: Polity.

  64. Helm, A. (2009). Global marketing classroom: Green marketing. American Marketing Association Global SIG Newsletter, Global Interests.

  65. Hildebrandt, Mireille. 2013, “Extraterritorial Jurisdiction to Enforce in Cyberspace? Bodin, Schmitt, Grotius in Cyberspace?” Toronto Law Journal 63: 196-224.

  66. Hopkins, K. (1983). Conquerors and slaves: Sociological studies in Roman history. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  67. Ielpo, F. & Sevi, B. (2013). Forecasting the density of oil futures returns using model-free implied volatility and high-frequency data. Montpellier, France: Centre de Recherche en Economie et Droit de l'Energie CREDEN Equipe ART Dev, Université Montpellier, Faculté d’Economie, Cahier de recherche n° 13.10.106.

  68. Ji, Q., Liu, B.Y., Zhao W.L. & Fan, Y. (2018). Modelling dynamic dependence and risk spillover between all oil price shocks and stock market returns in the BRICS. 6th International Symposium on Environment Energy & Finance Issues, ISEFI 2018, Paris, France, May 24-25.

  69. Johnston, M. (1957). Roman life. Chicago, IL: Scott, Foresman.

  70. Kaabia, O., Dhaoui, A., Abid, I. & Guesmi, K. (2018). Oil supply-demand shocks and stock prices. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324687727_Oil_supply-demand_shocks_and_stock_prices

  71. Kahneman, D. & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47, 2, 263-291.

  72. Kehoe, D.P. (2011). Law and social function in the Roman Empire. The Oxford Handbook of Social Relations in the Roman World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

  73. Kilian, L. & Zhou, X. (2018). The propagation of regional shocks in housing markets: Evidence from oil price shocks in Canada. Centre for Economic Policy Research, London, UK, CEPR Discussion Paper DP12845. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3159148

  74. Kirchler, E.M. (2007). The economic psychology of tax behaviour. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

  75. Klein, T., von Mettenheim, H.J., Walther, Th. & Wegener, Ch. (2018). Forecasting high frequency realized volatility of oil with exogenous regressors. 6th International Symposium on Environment Energy & Finance Issues, ISEFI 2018, Paris, France, May 24-25.

  76. Kowert, Weston. 2017. “The foreseeability of human-artificial intelligence interactions.” Texas Law Review 96: 181-204.

  77. Kowert, Weston. 2017. “The foreseeability of human-artificial intelligence interactions.” Texas Law Review 96: 181-204.

  78. Kruse, R. & Wegener, Ch. (2017). Time-varying persistence in real oil prices and its determinants. Working paper retrieved from http://www.wisostat.uni-koeln.de/sites/statistik/abstracts/RKB-Time-Varying_Persistence_in_Real_Oil_Prices_and_its_Determinant.pdf

  79. Larson, David Allen. 2010. “Artificial Intelligence: Robots, Avatars, and the Demise of the Human Mediator.” Ohio State Journal on Dispute Resolution 25: 105-64.

  80. Larson, David Allen. 2010. “Artificial Intelligence: Robots, Avatars, and the Demise of the Human Mediator.” Ohio State Journal on Dispute Resolution 25: 105-64.

  81. Laton, David. 2016. “Manhattan_Project.Exe: A Nuclear Option for the Digital Age.” Catholic University Journal of Law & Technology 25(4): 94-153.

  82. Laton, David. 2016. “Manhattan_Project.Exe: A Nuclear Option for the Digital Age.” Catholic University Journal of Law & Technology 25(4): 94-153.

  83. Legnazzi, Ch. (2018). Forward-looking VaR and CVaR: An application to the natural gas market. 6th International Symposium on Environment Energy & Finance Issues, ISEFI 2018, Paris, France, May 24-25.

  84. Leontief, W. (1997). Input-output economics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

  85. Lin, P., Abney, K., Bekey, G.A. 2012. ROBOT ETHICS: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics. London, England: The MIT Press.

  86. Lips, J. (2018). Debt and the oil industry: Analysis on the firm and production level. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3026063

  87. MacDonald, Fiona. 2016. “Harvard Scientists Think They've Pinpointed the Physical Source of Consciousness.” Science Alert, June 23. http://www.sciencealert.com/harvard-scientists-think-they-ve-pinpointed-the-neural-source-of-consciousness.

  88. MacDonald, Fiona. 2016. “Harvard Scientists Think They've Pinpointed the Physical Source of Consciousness.” Science Alert, June 23. http://www.sciencealert.com/harvard-scientists-think-they-ve-pinpointed-the-neural-source-of-consciousness.

  89. Mahadeo, S.M.R., Heinleinb, R. & Legrenzib, G.D. (2018). New contagion applications for the energy-finance nexus: A higher moment approach. 6th International Symposium on Environment Energy & Finance Issues, ISEFI 2018, Paris, France, May 24-25.

  90. Markowitz, E.M., Grasso, M. & Jamieson, D. (2015). Climate ethics at a multidisciplinary crossroad: Four directions for future scholarship. Climate Change, 130, 3, 465-474.

  91. Marra, William & Sarah McNeil. 2013. “Understanding “The Loop”: Regulating the Next Generation of War Machines.” Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 36: 1139-87.

  92. Marra, William & Sarah McNeil. 2013. “Understanding “The Loop”: Regulating the Next Generation of War Machines.” Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 36: 1139-87.

  93. Marron, D.B. & Morris, A.C. (2016). How to use carbon tax revenues. Washington, D.C.: Tax Policy Center Urban Institute & Brookings Institution.

  94. Marx, K. (1867/1995). Capital: A critique of political economy. Moscow, RU: Progress.

  95. Mauss, M. (1979). A category of the human mind: The notion of the person, the notion of ‘self,’ In M. Mauss, p. 81, Sociology and Psychology, London, UK: Routledge.

  96. Meghdari, A. & Alemi, M. (2018). Recent advances in social & cognitive robotics and imminent ethical challenges. Proceedings of the 10th International RAIS Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities organized by Research Association for Interdisciplinary Studies (RAIS) at The Erdman Center at Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States. Cambridge, MA: The Scientific Press.

  97. Meghdari, A. & Alemi, M. (2018). Recent advances in social & cognitive robotics and imminent ethical challenges. Proceedings of the 10th International RAIS Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities organized by Research Association for Interdisciplinary Studies (RAIS) at The Erdman Center at Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States. Cambridge, MA: The Scientific Press.

  98. Meghdari, A., Alemi, M., Zakipour, M., Kashanian, S.A. 2018. “Design and Realization of a Sign Language Educational Humanoid Robot.” Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems, pp. 1-15, Springer, 2018.

  99. Meghdari, A., Alemi, M., Zakipour, M., Kashanian, S.A. 2018. “Design and Realization of a Sign Language Educational Humanoid Robot.” Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems, pp. 1-15, Springer, 2018.

  100. Meghdari, A., Shariati, A., Alemi, M., Vossoughi, G.R., et al. 2018. "Arash: A Social Robot Buddy to Support Children with Cancer in a Hospital Environment." Proc. of the IMechE, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine 232(6): 605-618.

  101. Meghdari, A., Shariati, A., Alemi, M., Vossoughi, G.R., et al. 2018. "Arash: A Social Robot Buddy to Support Children with Cancer in a Hospital Environment." Proc. of the IMechE, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine 232(6): 605-618.

  102. Mohamed, A.M.I. (2016). Globalization and new international public works agreements in developing countries: An analytical perspective. London, UK: Routledge.

  103. Moore, J.W. (2009). Ecology and the accumulation of capital: A brief environmental history of neoliberalism. Paper presented at the Workshop on Food, Energy, Environment: Crisis in the Modern World-System. Fernand Braudel Center, Binghampton University, October 9-10.

  104. Mumford, A. (2001). Taxing culture. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

  105. Nordhaus, W.D. (1994). Mapping the global commons: The economics of climate change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  106. Noyes, Katherine. 2016. “5 things you need to know about A.I.: Cognitive, neural and deep, oh my!” COMPUTERWORLD, March 3. www.computerworld.com/article/3040563/enterprise-applications/5-things-you-need-toknow-about-ai-cognitive-neural-anddeep-oh-my.html [http://perma.cc/7PW9-P42G.

  107. Noyes, Katherine. 2016. “5 things you need to know about A.I.: Cognitive, neural and deep, oh my!” COMPUTERWORLD, March 3. www.computerworld.com/article/3040563/enterprise-applications/5-things-you-need-toknow-about-ai-cognitive-neural-anddeep-oh-my.html [http://perma.cc/7PW9-P42G.

  108. Noyes, Katherine. 2016. “5 things you need to know about A.I.: Cognitive, neural and deep, oh my!” COMPUTERWORLD, March 3. www.computerworld.com/article/3040563/enterprise-applications/5-things-you-need-toknow-about-ai-cognitive-neural-anddeep-oh-my.html [http://perma.cc/7PW9-P42G.

  109. Ordu-Akkaya, B.M. & Soytas, U. (2018). The impact of foreign portfolio investment on financialization of commodities. 6th International Symposium on Environment Energy & Finance Issues, ISEFI 2018, Paris, France, May 24-25.

  110. Orttung, R. (2010a). Politics and profits in Russia’s foreign oil and gas conflicts. Center for Security Studies Colloquium, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, August 30.

  111. Orttung, R. (2010b). Five myths about energy security. Energy Forum 2010, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, May 11.

  112. Orttung, R. (2014). Russia’s place in the world energy system: Fueling the future: Deconstructing the role of energy in contemporary international relations. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto, January 25.

  113. Orttung, R. (2015). Promoting sustainability in Russia’s artic: Integrating local, regional, federal, and corporate interest. In S. Oxenstierna (Ed.), The Challenges for Russia’s Policized Economic System, pp. 202-219. London, UK: Routledge.

  114. Orttung, R. (2016). Sustaining Russia’s arctic cities: Resource politics, migration, and climate change. New York, NY: Berghahn.

  115. Orttung, R. & Overland, I. (2011a). A limited toolbox: Explaining the constraints on Russia’s foreign energy policy. Journal of Eurasian Studies, 2, 1, 74-85.

  116. Orttung, R. & Overland, I. (2011b). Russia and the formation of a gas cartel. Problems of Post-Communism, 58, 3, 53-66.

  117. Perovic, J., Orttung, R.W. & Wenger, A. (2009). Russian energy power and foreign relations. London: Routledge.

  118. Puaschunder, J. M. (2015). Trust and reciprocity drive common goods allocation norms. Proceedings of the Cambridge Business & Economics Conference. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University.

  119. Puaschunder, J. M. (2017b). Mapping Climate in the 21st Century. Development, 59, 3, 211-216.

  120. Puaschunder, J. M. (forthcoming a). Climate polices with burden sharing: The economies of climate financing. Advances in Financial Economics. 

  121. Puaschunder, J.M. (2016). Intergenerational climate change burden sharing: An economics of climate stability research agenda proposal. Global Journal of Management and Business Research: Economics and Commerce, 16, 3, 31-38.

  122. Puaschunder, J.M. (2017a). Climate in the 21st century: A macroeconomic model of fair global warming benefits distribution to grant climate justice around the world and over time. Proceedings of the 8th International RAIS Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities organized by Research Association for Interdisciplinary Studies (RAIS) at Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., United States, March 26-27, pp. 205-243.

  123. Puaschunder, J.M. (2017c). Socio-psychological motives of socially responsible investors. Advances in Financial Economics, 19, 1, 209-247.

  124. Puaschunder, J.M. (2017d). Sunny side up! From climate change burden sharing to fair global warming benefits distribution: Groundwork on the metaphysics of the gains of global warming and the climatorial imperative. Proceedings of the Administrative Sciences Association of Canada Annual Conference, HEC Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

  125. Puaschunder, J.M. (2017e). The call for global responsible inter-generational leadership: The quest of an integration of inter-generational equity in corporate social responsibility (CSR) models. In Natural resources management: Concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications: Information resources management association. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

  126. Puaschunder, J.M. (2018). Artificial Intelligence Evolution: On the virture of killing in the artificial Age.  Social Science Research Network working paper retrievable at https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3247401

  127. Puaschunder, J.M. (2018a). Gifts without borders: Intergenerational glue connecting over distance and time as pure international development in the age of migration. In J. M. Puaschunder (Ed.), Intergenerational responsibility in the 21st century, pp. 143-174. Wilmington, DE: Vernon.

  128. Puaschunder, J.M. (2018b). Value at looking back: Towards an empirical validation oft he role of reflexibility in econo-historic backtesting: Economic market prediction corrections correlate with future market performance. Social Science Research Network Working Paper retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3170734

  129. Puaschunder, J.M. (forthcoming b). Governance and climate justice: Global South and developing nations. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.

  130. Puaschunder, J.M. (forthcoming c). Nachhaltigkeit und Investment. In E. Bamberg & C. Schmitt (Eds.), Psychologie und Nachhaltigkeit: Konzeptionelle Grundlagen, Anwendungsbeispiele und Zukunftsperspektiven. Hamburg, Germany: Springer.

  131. Puaschunder, J.M. (forthcoming). Artificial Intelligence Ethics.

  132. Puaschunder, J.M. (work in progress). Climate change induced market prospects. Washington, DC: George Washington University working paper.

  133. Puaschunder, J.M. (work in progress). Putty and clay labor: What to learn from the Cambridge Controversy for the entrance of AI in today’s workforce.

  134. Renz, A. (2018). Sector competition for energy resources in a carbon constrained hoteling model. 6th International Symposium on Environment Energy & Finance Issues, ISEFI 2018, Paris, France, May 24-25.

  135. Ricardo, D. (1817/1951). On the principles of political economy and taxation. In P. Sraffa (Ed.), The Works and Correspondence of David Ricardo, pp. 1951-1973. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

  136. Roberts, G., Barbier, E. & van’t Veld, K.V. (2018). The beginning of the end of the age of oil. Retrieved from https://cenrep.ncsu.edu/cenrep/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Roberts.pdf

  137. Rosenlund Soysal, E. (2018). Share repurchase under diverging beliefs about carbon risk. 6th International Symposium on Environment Energy & Finance Issues, ISEFI 2018, Paris, France, May 24-25.

  138. Russell, Stuart & Peter Norvig. 1995. Artificial Intelligence a Modern Approach. New Jersey: A. Simon & Schuster Company.

  139. Russell, Stuart & Peter Norvig. 1995. Artificial Intelligence a Modern Approach. New Jersey: A. Simon & Schuster Company.

  140. Russell, Stuart & Peter Norvig. 1995. Artificial Intelligence a Modern Approach. New Jersey: A. Simon & Schuster Company.

  141. Sachs, J.D. (2014). Climate change and intergenerational well-being. In L. Bernard & W. Semmler (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Macroeconomics of Global Warming, pp. 248-259. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

  142. Saffari, E., Meghdari, A., Vazirnezhad, B., Alemi, M. 2015. “Ava (A Social Robot): Design and Performance of a Robotic Hearing Apparatus.” LNCS: Social Robotics 9388: 440-450, Springer, Oct. 2015.

  143. Saussay, A. & Sato, M. (2018). The impacts of energy prices on industrial foreign investment location: Evidence from global firm level data. Retrieved from https://personal.lse.ac.uk/satom/publication/currentss/

  144. Schmölders, G. (1960). Das Irrationale in der öffentlichen Finanzwirtschaft. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Suhrkamp.

  145. Schuller, Alan. 2017. “At the Crossroads of Control: The Intersection of Artificial Intelligence in Autonomous Weapon Systems with International Humanitarian Law.” Harvard National Security Journal 8: 379- 425.

  146. Schuller, Alan. 2017. “At the Crossroads of Control: The Intersection of Artificial Intelligence in Autonomous Weapon Systems with International Humanitarian Law.” Harvard National Security Journal 8: 379- 425.

  147. Schütze, F., Aleksovski, D. & Mozetic, I. (2018). Stock market reactions to international climate negotiations. Retrieved from https://bibbase.org/network/publication/schtze-aleksovski-mozeti-stockmarketreactionstointernationalclimatenegotiations-2018

  148. Schweiger, H. & Stepanov, A. (2018). Energy subsidies, energy intensity and management practices. Retrieved from https://www.ebrd.com/cs/Satellite?c=Content&cid=1395236502077&d=Mobile&pagename=EBRD%2FContent%2FContentLayout

  149. Sherman, H.J. (1967). Marx and the business cycle. Science & Society, 31, 4, 486-504.

  150. Smith, B. (2006). Gender. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Charles Scribner’s.

  151. Sofge, E. 2015. “Bill Gates Fears A.I., But A.I. Researchers Know Better.” Popular Science. www.popsci.com/ bill-gates-fears-ai-ai-researchers-know-better.

  152. Sofge, E. 2015. “Bill Gates Fears A.I., But A.I. Researchers Know Better.” Popular Science. www.popsci.com/ bill-gates-fears-ai-ai-researchers-know-better.

  153. Solum, Lawrence. 1992. “Legal Personhood for Artificial Intelligences.” North Carolina Law Review 70(4): 1231-87.

  154. Solum, Lawrence. 1992. “Legal Personhood for Artificial Intelligences.” North Carolina Law Review 70(4): 1231-87.

  155. Somanathan, E., Somanathan, R., Sudarshan, A. & Tewari, M. (2014). The impact of temperature on productivity and labor supply: Evidence from Indian manufacturing. Discussion Paper in Economics 14-10, Indian Statistical Institute, Economics, and Planning Unit.

  156. Soros, G. (2003). The alchemy of finance. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Finance.

  157. Soros, G. (2009). The crash of 2008 and with is means. New York, NY: Public Affairs.

  158. Soros, G. (2013). Fallibility, reflexivity and the human uncertainty principle. Journal of Economic Methodology, 20, 309-329.

  159. Soskice, D. (1978) Strike waves and wage explosions, 1968-1970: An economic interpretation, In C.Crouch & A. Pizzorno (Eds.), The Resurgence of Class Conflict in Western Europe since 1968, pp. 221-245, London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

  160. Sraffa, P. (1960). Production of commodities by means of commodities. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

  161. Stiglitz, J. (1998). The private uses of public interests: Incentives and institutions. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12, 3-22.

  162. Stroebe, W. & Frey, B.S. (1982). Self-interest and collective action: The economics and psychology of public goods. British Journal of Social Psychology, 21, 2, 121-137.

  163. Taheri, A.R., Meghdari, A., Alemi, M., Pouretemad, H.R., et al. 2018. "Human–Robot Interaction in Autism Treatment: A Case Study on Three Pairs of Autistic Children as Twins, Siblings, and Classmates." Int. Journal of Social Robotics 10(1): 93-113.

  164. Täuber, S., van Zomeren, M. & Kutlaca, M. (2015). Should the moral core of climate issues be emphasized or downplayed in public discourse? Three ways to successfully manage the double-edged sword of moral communication. Climate Change, 130, 3, 453-464.

  165. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome. (2010). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

  166. The World Bank (2015). Green bonds attract private sector climate finance. World Bank Brief, 2015.

  167. The World Economic Forum 2015 Report. (2015). Davos, Switzerland: World Economic Forum.

  168. Themistoklis, T. (2018). Artificial intelligence as global commons and the “international law supremacy” principle. Proceedings of the 10th International RAIS Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities organized by Research Association for Interdisciplinary Studies (RAIS) at The Erdman Center at Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States. Cambridge, MA: The Scientific Press.

  169. Themistoklis, T. (2018). Artificial intelligence as global commons and the “international law supremacy” principle. Proceedings of the 10th International RAIS Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities organized by Research Association for Interdisciplinary Studies (RAIS) at The Erdman Center at Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States. Cambridge, MA: The Scientific Press.

  170. Trinks, A., Mulder, M. & Scholtens, B. (2017). Greenhouse gas emissions intensity and the cost of capital. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c8f5/d6b192df64cde5f578f100d7fb2a6b40515b.pdf

  171. Tsagourias, Nicholas. 2015. “The legal status of cyberspace.” in Research Handbook, International Law and Cyberspace, edited by N. Tsagourias & R. Buchan, 13-29. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

  172. Tversky, A. & Shafir, E. (1992). Choice under conflict: The dynamics of deferred decision. Psychological Science, 3, 6, 358-361.

  173. Tyler, T.R. & De Cremer, D. (2006). How do we promote cooperation in groups, organizations, and societies? In P.A.M van Lange (Ed.), Bridging Social Psychology: Benefits of Transdisciplinary Approaches, pp. 427-433. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum.

  174. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2017. Will robots and AI cause mass unemployment? Not necessarily, but they do bring other threats. New York: https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/policy/will-robots-and-ai-cause-mass-unemployment-not-necessarily-but-they-do-bring-other-threats.html

  175. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2017. Will robots and AI cause mass unemployment? Not necessarily, but they do bring other threats. New York: https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/policy/will-robots-and-ai-cause-mass-unemployment-not-necessarily-but-they-do-bring-other-threats.html

  176. United Nations Report on the World Social Situation (2011). The global social crisis. New York, NY: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Report ST/ESA/334.

  177. Veruggio, G. 2005. “The Birth of Roboethics.” ICRA 2005, IEEE Int. Conference on Robotics and Automation: Workshop on Robo-Ethics, Barcelona, April 18, 2005.

  178. Vlassopoulos, K. (2009). Politics antiquity and its legacy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

  179. Warwick, K. & Shah, H. 2014. “How Good Robots Will Enhance Human Life.” In book: Treatise on Good Robots Edition: PRAXIOLOGY: The International Annual of Practical Philosophy and Methodology Vol. 21, Book Chapter, Transaction Publishers, USA Editors: Krzysztof Tchoń, Wojciech W. Gasparski, January 2014.

  180. Wenger, A., Orttung, R.W. & Perovic, J. (2009). Energy and the transformation of international relations: Toward a new producer-consumer framework. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

  181. Wisskirchen, Gerlind, et al. 2017. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics and their Impact on the Workplace. London: IBA Global Employment Institute.

  182. Wisskirchen, Gerlind, et al. 2017. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics and their Impact on the Workplace. London: IBA Global Employment Institute.

  183. World Bank 2015 Report. (2015). Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

  184. World Bank Group Migration and Development Brief 26 (2016). Migration and remittances: Recent development and outlook. Washington D.C.: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Bank Group, April 2016.

  185. World Investment Report (2015). Reforming international investment governance. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Report. New York, NY: United Nations.

  186. Yarlik, M.V., Filis, G., Lloyd, T. & Degiannakis, St. (2018). Forecasting oil price volatility: The role of mixed-frequency data (MIDAS) model. 6th International Symposium on Environment Energy & Finance Issues, ISEFI 2018, Paris, France, May 24-25.

  187. Zhang, D. (2018). Upgrading China’s energy structure: The role of financial markets. 6th International Symposium on Environment Energy & Finance Issues, ISEFI 2018, Paris, France, May 24-25.

  188. Zhou, S.L., Smulders, S. & Gerlagh, R. (2018). Closing the loop in a circular economy: Saving resources or suffocating innovations? 6th International Symposium on Environment Energy & Finance Issues, ISEFI 2018, Paris, France, May 24-25.

About Us

The Asian Institute of Research is an online and open-access platform to publish recent research and articles of scholars worldwide. Founded in 2018 and based in Indonesia, the Institute serves as a platform for academics, educators, scholars, and students from Asia and around the world, to connect with one another. The Institute disseminates research that is proven or predicted to be of significant influence for the general public.

Contact Us

Please send all inquiries to the email:

editorial@asianinstituteofresearch.org

Business Address:

5th Floor, Kavling 507, Fajar Graha Pena Tower, Jl. Urip Sumohardjo No.20, Makassar, Indonesia 90234

Copyright © 2018 The Asian Institute of Research. All rights reserved

Stay Connected

  • Instagram - Black Circle
  • Facebook - Black Circle
  • LinkedIn - Black Circle