Economics and Business
ISSN 2775-9237 (Online)
Published: 30 November 2020
Social Media Influencer in Advertising: The Role of Attractiveness, Expertise and Trustworthiness
Brahim Chekima, Fatima Zohra Chekima, Azaze-Azizi Abdul Adis
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia
Download Full-Text Pdf
Keywords: Cosmetics, Social Media Influencer, Attractiveness, Trustworthiness, Expertise, Ad Effectiveness, Purchase Intention
The cosmetic industry has shown rapid growth worldwide and is seen as a profitable business yet highly competitive. A popular grab-attention strategy being adopted worldwide by the brand manufacturers is celebrity endorsement to improve the effectiveness of the advertisement. Despite its popularity, companies increasingly abandoning it in favor of social media influencers due to the popularity of social media and online stores. However, the effectiveness of this new way of communication using an influencer is not well understood. To address this gap, this research investigated the influence of social media influencer credibility (attractiveness, trustworthiness, and expertise) on advertising effectiveness (attitude toward the product, attitude toward the advertisement, and purchase intention to ensure if it is suitable to hire a social media influencer to advertise cosmetic products in Malaysia over a celebrity. The finding can serve as a reference to help cosmetic products marketers to develop effective ads using source credibility to communicate with their customers and stand out from the surrounding media clutter.
Aaker, D.A. & Myers, J.G. 1987. Advertising Management 3rd Edition, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Atkin, C. & Block, M. 1983. Effectiveness of celebrity endorsers. Journal of Advertising Research. 23(1), 57-61.
Balog, K., M. D. Rijke, and W. Weerkamp. 2008. Bloggers as experts: Feed distillation using expert retrieving models. In Proceedings of the 31st annual international ACM SIGIR conference on research and development in information retrieval, ed. Syung Hyon Myaeng, Douglas W. Oard.
Bruner, G. C., & Hensel, P. J. (1993). Multi-item scale usage in marketing journals: 1980 to 1989. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 21(4), 339-344.
Fabrizio Sebastiani, Tat-Seng Chua, and Mun-Kew Leong, 753–54. New York: ACM.
Bardia, Y.H., Abed, A. & Majid, N.Z. 2011. Investigate the impact of celebrity endorsement on brand image. European Journal of Scientific Research. 58(1), 116-132.
Bergkvist, L., & Zhou, K.Q. 2016. Celebrity endorsements: A literature review and research agenda. International Journal of Advertising, 35(4), 642–663.
Byrne, A., Whitehead, M & Breen, S. 2003. The naked truth of celebrity endorsement. British Food Journal, 105(4/5) 288-296.
Chan, K., Ng, Y.L. & Luk, E.K. 2013. Impact of celebrity endorsement in advertising on brand image among Chinese adolescents. Young Consumers, 14(2), 167-179.
Chao, P., Wuhrer, G., Werani, T. 2015. Celebrity and Foreign Brand Name as Moderators of Country-of-Origin Effects. International Journal of Advertising, 24(2), 173–192.
Charbonneau, J. & Garland, R. 2005. Talent, Looks or Brains? New Zealand Advertising Practitioners Views on Celebrity and Athlete Endorsers. Marketing Bulletin, 16(3), 1-10.
Chekima, B., & Chekima, K. (2019). The Impact of Human Values and Knowledge on Green Products Purchase Intention. In Gbadamosi, A. (Ed.), Exploring the Dynamics of Consumerism in Developing Nations (pp. 266-283). IGI Global
Chekima, F. Z., & Chekima, B. 2019. Celebrity Credibility Influence on Cosmetic Product Purchase Intention: The Moderating Role of Ethnocentrism. In Gbadamosi, A. (Ed.), Exploring the Dynamics of Consumerism in Developing Nations (pp. 153-175). IGI Global.
Daneshvary, R., Schwer, R.K. 2000. The Association Endorsement and Consumers’ Intentions to Purchase. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 17(3), 203-213.
Djafarova, E., and C. Rushworth. 2017. Exploring the credibility of online celebrities’ instagram profiles in influencing the purchase decisions of young female users. Computers in Human Behavior 68, 1–7.
Erdem, T. & Swait, J. 2004. Brand credibility, brand consideration, and choice. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(1), 191-198.
Erdogan, B.Z. 1999. Celebrity Endorsement: A Literature Review. Journal of Marketing Management, 41(3), 291-314.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., and Sarstedt, M., (2017), A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) (2nd ed.). Thousand Oakes, CA: Sage.
Hovland, C. I., Janis, I. L., & Kelly, H.H. 1953. Communication and persuasion: psychological studies in opinion change. American Sociological Review, 19(3), 355-357.
Khamis, S., L. Ang, and R. Welling. 2017. Self-branding, ‘micro-celebrity’ and the rise of social media influencers. Celebrity Studies, 8(2), 191–208.
Lim, X. J., Radzol, A.R., Hwa, Cheah., Wong, M.W. 2017. The Impact of Social Media Influencers on Purchase Intention and the Mediation Effect of Customer Attitude. Asian Journal of Business Research. 7, 19-36.
Lin, H.C., P.F. Bruning, and H. Swarna. 2018. Using online opinion leaders to promote the hedonic and utilitarian value of products and services. Business Horizons 61(3) 431–42.
Liu, B. F., Jin, Y., Briones, R., and Kuch, B., 2012, Managing turbulence in the blogosphere: Evaluating the blog-mediated crisis communication model with the American red-cross, Journal of Public Relations Research, 24(4), 353–370.
MacKenzie, S. B., Lutz, R. J. & Belch, G. E. (1986). The role of attitude toward the ad as a mediator of advertising effectiveness: A test of competing explanations. Journal of Marketing Research, 23, 130-143.
Markethub. 2016. Influencer marketing vs. word-of-mouth marketing. Retrieved from https://www.markethub.io/influencer-marketing-vs-word-of-mouth-marketing/
MarketResearch.com. 2020. Retrieved from https://www.marketresearch.com/Allied-Market-Research-v4029/Malaysia-Skin-Care-Products-Type-13536591/
Marwick, A.E. 2015. You May Know Me from YouTube: (Micro‐) Celebrity in Social Media. In A Companion to Celebrity (eds P.D. Marshall and S. Redmond)
McCracken, G. 1989. Who is the Celebrity Endorser? Cultural Foundations of the Endorsement Process. Journal of Consumer Research, 16(3), 310-322.
McCroskey, J. C., & McCain, T. A. 1974. The measurement of interpersonal attraction. Speech Monographs, 41(3), 261-266.
McGinnies, E. & Charles D. W. 1980. Better Liked Than Right: Trustworthiness and Expertise as Factors in Credibility. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 6(3), 467-472.
McGuire, W. J. 1985. Attitudes and Attitude Change. Handbook of Social Psychology, Vol. 2, Gardner Lindzey and Elliot Aronson, eds., New York: Random House, 233-346.
Miller, G.P. & Basehart, J. 1969. Source trustworthiness, opinionated statements, and response to persuasive communication. Speech Monographs, 36(1), 1-7.
Moore, D. L., Hausknecht, D., & Thamodaran, K. 1988. Time Compression, Response Opportunity, and Persuasion. Journal of Consumer Research, 13:12-24.
Muda, M., Musa, R., & Putit, L. 2012. Breaking through the clutter in media environment: how do celebrities help?. Procedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 42, 374-382.
Muda, M., Musa, R., Mohamed, R.N., Borhan, H. 2014. Celebrity Entrepreneur Endorsement and Advertising Effectiveness. Procedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences 130, 11 – 20
Ohanian, R. 1990. Construction and Validation of A Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorser’s Perceived Expertise, Trustworthiness, and Attractiveness. Journal of Advertising, 19(3), 39- 52.
Ohanian, R. 1991. The Impact of Celebrity Spokesperson's Perceived Image on Consumers' Intention to Purchase. Journal of Advertising Research, 31(1), 46-52.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.
Priester, J.R. & Petty, R.E. 2003.The influence of spokesperson trustworthiness on message elaboration, attitude strength, and advertising effectiveness. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13(4), 408-421.
Ranjbarian, B., Shekarchizade, Z. & Momeni, Z. 2010. Celebrity endorser influence on attitude toward advertisement and brands. European Journal of Social Science, 13(3), 399-404.
Schouten, A.P., Janssen. L & Verspaget, M. 2020. Celebrity vs. Influencer endorsements in advertising: the role of identification, credibility, and Product-Endorser fit, International Journal of Advertising, 39(2), 258-281.
Smith, E.G., Meurs, L. V., & Neijens, P.C. 2006. Effects of Advertising Likeability: A 10 Year Perspective. Journal of Advertising Research, 46(1), 73-83.
Singh, R.P & Banarjee, N. 2018. Exploring the Influence of Celebrity Credibility on Brand Attitude, Advertisement Attitude and Purchase Intention. Global Business Review 19(6) 1-18.
Speck, P. S., Schumann, D. W., & Thompson, C. 1988. Celebrity endorsements-scripts, schema and roles: theoretical framework and preliminary tests. Advances in Consumer Research, 15(1), 69-76.
Temperley, J. & Tangen, D. 2006. The Pinocchio factor in consumer attitudes towards celebrity endorsement: celebrity endorsement, the Reebok brand, and an examination of a recent campaign. Journal of Innovative Marketing, 2(3), 97-106.
Thompson, T & Johnson, J. 2017. The Impact of Celebrity Expertise on Advertising Effectiveness: The Mediating Role of Celebrity Brand Fit. Vision, 21(4) 367-374.
Van der Waldt, D., Van Loggerenberg, M., & Wehmeyer, L. (2009), Celebrity Endorsements versus Created Spokespersons in Advertising: A Survey among Students. SAJEMS, 12(1), 110-114.
Wei, K. K., & Li, W. Y. (2013). Measuring the impact of celebrity endorsement on consumer behavioural intentions: a study of Malaysian consumers. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 14(3), 157–177.
Yi, Y. (1990). Cognitive and affective priming effects of the context for print advertisements. Journal of Advertising, 19(2), 40-48.