Journal of Economics and Business

ISSN 2615-3726 (Online)

ISSN 2621-5667 (Print)

Published: 01 August 2019

The Relationship among Emotional Intelligence, Social Support, Job Involvement, and Turnover Intention – A Study of Nurses in Taiwan

Chun-Chen Huang, Szu-Hsien Lin, Kai-Wen Zheng

Asia University (Taiwan), TransWorld University (Taiwan)

Download Full-Text Pdf


Pages: 652-659

Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Social Support, Job involvement, Turnover intention, Nurses


This study examines the relationship between nursing staff's emotional intelligence, social support, job involvement, and turnover intention of nursing staff. The MANOVA Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) were used to examine the aforesaid constructs. The results of the study show that while emotional intelligence has a positive impact on social support and job involvement, social support also has a positive impact on job involvement. Meanwhile, both social support and job involvement have a negative impact on turnover intention. Therefore, the underlying reasons for turnover behavior can be traced back to emotional intelligence, whereas social support and job involvement can be two tiers of mediators. These results can provide hospitals with human resource management strategies and serve as a reference for organizational management.


  1. Aoki, K., Katoh, Y., Mimura, H., & Sugaya, T. (2002). Effects of professional commitment and social support on organizational commitment of public special schoolteachers. Japanese Journal of Counseling Science, 35(3), 208-218.

  2. Argyle, M. (1987). The psychology of Happiness. London and New York: Routedge.

  3. Bar-On, R. (2000). Emotional and social intelligence: Insights from the emotional quotient inventory, 363-388.

  4. Brown, S. P. (1996). A meta-analysis and review of organizational research on job involvement. Psychological Bulletin, 120(2), 235-255.

  5. Chang, H. L., Lu, M. S., & Lin, C. F. (2010). Factors related to new nursing staff turnover rates. The Journal of Health Sciences, 12(3), 161–172.

  6. Cohen, S., Gottlieb, B. H., & Underwood, L. G. (2000). Social relationships and health. In S. Cohen, L. G. Underwood, & B. H. Gottlieb (Eds.), Social support, measurement and intervention: A guide for health and social scientists, 3-25.

  7. Doeglas, D., Suurmeijer, T., Briancon, S., Moum, T., Krol. B., Bjelle, A., Samderman, R., & Heuvel. W. V. D. (1996). "An international study on measuring social support: Interactions and satisfaction", Social Science & Medicine, 43(9), 1389-1397.

  8. Dollard, M. F., Winefield, H. R., Winefield, A. H., & De Jonge, J. (2000). Psychosocial job strain and productivity in human service workers: A test of the demand-control-support model. Journal of occupational & organizational psychology, 73(4), 501-511.

  9. Goleman, D. (1996) Emotional Intelligence-Why it can matter than IQ? What really determines success in life, Learning, 3(1), 49-50.

  10. Goo, Y. S., Lin-Wang, M.Y., & Lu, Y. J. (2007). Report on a visit by the Japanese Association of Caregivers. Newsletter of Taiwan Union of Nurses Association, 59, 14–17.

  11. Hough, E. S., Magnan, M. A., Templin, T., & Gadelrab, H. F. (2005). Social network structure and social support in HIV-Positive inner city mothers. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 16(4), 14-24.

  12. Huang, M. H., & Kuo, C. L. (2009). Correlation study of career barriers and coping strategies among female nurses. Journal of Nursing and Healthcare Research, 5(2), 91–99.

  13. Iverson, R. D., Olekalns, M., & Erwin, P. J. (1998). Affectivity, organization stressors, and absenteeism: A causal model of burnout and its consequences. Journal of vocational behavior, 52(1), 1-23.

  14. Kao, C. C. (2011). Multi-aspects of nursing manpower in Taiwan. Cheng Ching Medical Journal, 7(3), 41–46.

  15. Lam, L. T., & Kirby, S. L. (2002). "Is emotional intelligence an advantage? An exploration of the impact of emotional and general intelligence on individual performance", The Journal of Social Psychology, 142(1), 133-143,

  16. Lee, R. P. L., Ruan, D., & Lai, G. (2005). Social structure and support networks in Beijing and Hong Kong. Social Networks, 27, 249-274.

  17. Lodahl, T. M., & Kejner, M. (1965). The definition and measurement of job involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 49 (1), 24-33.

  18. Lord, V. B., (1996). An impact of community policing: Reported stressors, social support, and strain among police officers in changing police department, Journal of Criminal Justice, 24(6), 503-522.

  19. Lu, M. S. (2009). The issues of nursing manpower. In M. S. Lu (Ed.), Discussion on professional nursing issues, Taipei City, Taiwan, ROC: Wunan Book, 113–115.

  20. Lu, M. S., Lin, C. F., Chen, Y. C., Chang, W. Y., & Kao, C. C. (2008). Nursing staffing policy counseling project. Taipei City: Executive Yuan, Taiwan, ROC, Department of Health.

  21. Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. Sluyter (Eds.). Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence: Implications for Educators, 3-31.

  22. McGrath, A., Reid, N., & Boore, J. (2003). Occupational stress in nursing. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 40(5), 555-565.

  23. Mobely, W. H. (1977). Intermediate linkages in the relationship betweenjobsatisfaction and employee turnover. Journal of AppliedPsychology, 62(2), 237-240.

  24. Ootim, B. (2001). Social support. Nursing Management, 7(9), 22-24.

  25. Othman, A. K., Abdullah, H. S., & Ahmad, J., "Emotional intelligence, emotional labour and work effectiveness in service organization: A proposed model", The Journal of Business Perspective, 12(1), 31-42, 2008.

  26. Pedersen, S. S., Spinder, H., Erdman, R. A. M., & Denollet, J. (2009). Poor perceived social support in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients and their partners: Cross-validation of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Psychosomatics, 50,461-467.

  27. Pinkerton, S. (2008). The magnet view: Pursuing ANCC magnet recognition as a system or individual organization. Nursing Economic, 26(5), 323–324.

  28. Price, J. L. (1977). The Study of Turnover, Ames:The Iowa State University Press.

  29. Rabinowitz, S. & Hall, D. T. (1977). Organizational research on job involvement. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 265-288.

  30. Ray, E. B., & Miller, K. I. (1991). The influence of communication structure and social support on job stress and burnout. Management Communication Quarterly, 4(4), 506-527.

  31. Robbins, S. P. (2006) Organizational behavior, 11th ed.

  32. Robinowitz, S., & Hall, D. T. (1977). Organizational research on job involvement. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 265-288.

  33. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3), 185-211.

  34. Sarason, I. G., Levine, H. M., Basham, R. B., & Sarason, B. R. (1983). Assessing social support: The social support questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44,127-139.

  35. Singh, K. (2008). "Emotional intelligence and work place effectiveness", Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 44(2), 292-302,

  36. Steinhardt, M. A., Dolbier, C. L., Gottlieb, N. H., & McCalister, K. T. (2003). The relationship between hardiness, suspervisor support, group cohesion, and job stress as predicitors of job satisfaction. Journal of Health Promotion, 17(6), 382-389.

  37. Thomas, L. T., & Ganster, C. D. (1995). Impact of family-supportive work variables on work-family conflict and strain: A control perspective. Journal of applied psychology, 80(1), 6-15.

  38. Tonsing, K., Zimet, G. D., & Tse, S. (2012). Assessing social support among South Asians: The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 5, 164-168.

  39. Westendorf, J. J. (2007). Magnet recognition program. Plastic Surgical Nursing, 27(2), 102–104.

  40. Wolf, G., Triolo, P., & Ponte, P. R. (2008). Magnet recognition program: The next generation. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 38(4), 200–204.

  41. Wong, C. S., Wong, Y. T., Hui C., & Law, K. S. (2001). The Significant Role of Chinese Employees' Organizational Commitment: Implications for Managing Employees in Chinese Societies, Journal of world business, 36(3), 326-340.

  42. Wu, S. L., Wu, M. S., Huang, H. C., Liuo, L. S., & Lin, M. H. (2009). Program to reduce the turnover rate of new nursing staff. T.S.M.H. Medical & Nursing Journal, 15(3), 165–176.

  43. Wu, T. Y., Fox, D., Stokes, C., & Adam, C. (2012). Work-related stress and intention to quit in newly graduated nurses. Nurse Education Today, 32(6), 669-674.

  44. Zangaro, G. A., & Soeken, K. L. (2007). A metaanalysis of studies of nurses’ job satisfaction. Research in Nursing & Health, 30(4), 445-458.

  45. Zeytinoglu, I. U., Denton, D., Davies, S., Baumannc, A., Blythe, J., & Boosb, L. (2006). Retaining nurses in their employing hospitals and in the profession: Effects of job preference, unpaid overtime, importance of earnings and stress. Health Policy, 79, 57-72.

About Us

The Asian Institute of Research is an online and open-access platform to publish recent research and articles of scholars worldwide. Founded in 2018 and based in Indonesia, the Institute serves as a platform for academics, educators, scholars, and students from Asia and around the world, to connect with one another. The Institute disseminates research that is proven or predicted to be of significant influence for the general public.

Contact Us

Please send all inquiries to the email:

Business Address:

5th Floor, Kavling 507, Fajar Graha Pena Tower, Jl. Urip Sumohardjo No.20, Makassar, Indonesia 90234

Copyright © 2018 The Asian Institute of Research. All rights reserved

Stay Connected

  • Instagram - Black Circle
  • Facebook - Black Circle
  • LinkedIn - Black Circle