Economics and Business
ISSN 2775-9237 (Online)
Published: 28 June 2023
Gender, Entrepreneurial Education, Self-Efficacy, Internal Control Locus, and Entrepreneurial Intention Based on the Perspective of Students
Nur Nur, Rosemarie Sutjiati Njotoprajitno, Bram Hadianto
Maranatha Christian University, Indonesia
Download Full-Text Pdf
Keywords: Entrepreneurial Education, Gender, Intention to Start a Business, Internal Control Locus, Self-Efficacy
This study investigates and analyzes the effect of gender, entrepreneurial education, self-efficacy, and internal control locus on entrepreneurial intention. Moreover, to achieve this goal, this study uses undergraduate students in the management and accounting departments of the business faculty of Maranatha Christian University as population and samples. This study sets the criterion based on the purposive sampling method because not all students already take entrepreneurial courses. Therefore, active students taking these courses onward deserve to be the samples. Based on this circumstance, this study surveyed their perception by distributing the questionnaire and effectively got 191 complete responses. Because of hypothesis verification, this study keeps employing a structural equation based on covariance to analyze and check the data related to constructs. Finally, this study concludes gender gap exists: male students have higher intentions to start a business than females. The more educated the students with entrepreneurial concepts, the more intent to start the venture. Students with higher self-efficacy and internal locus control tend to have higher intentions to begin a business.
Abdullah, R. (2020). Importance and contents of the business plan: A case-based approach. Jurnal Manajemen Indonesia, 20(2), 161–173. https://doi.org/10.25124/jmi.v20i2.3204
Ajzen, I. (1991). Theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T
Anjum, T., Farrukh, M., Heidler, P., & Tautiva, J. A. D. (2021). Entrepreneurial intention: Creativity, entrepreneurship, and university support. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 7, 11. https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7010011
Auna, M. S. S. (2021). The effect of internal locus of control on the Javanese entrepreneurial intention. Psychological Journal: Science and Practice, 1(2), 50–55. https://doi.org/10.22219/pjsp.v1i2.18189
Bapat, D. (2020). Antecedents to responsible financial management behavior among young adults: The moderating role of financial risk tolerance. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 38(5), 1177–1194. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBM-10-2019-0356
Baraba, R. (2021). Self-efficacy and attitude on entrepreneurial intention: A study of the students in management program in economics faculty in Muhammadiyah University, Purworejo. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Ekonomi & Bisnis, 262–271. https://doi.org/10.32528/psneb.v0i0.5178
Bird, B. (1988). Implementing entrepreneurial ideas: The case for intention. The Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 442–453. https://doi.org/10.2307/ 258091
Burnette, J. L., Pollack, J. M., Forsyth, R. B., Hoyt, C. L., Babij, A. D., Thomas, F. N., & Coy, A. E. (2020). A growth mindset intervention: Enhancing students’ entrepreneurial self-efficacy and career development. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 44(5), 878–908. https://doi.org/10.1177/1042258719864293
Che Embi, N. A., Jaiyeoba, H. B., & Yussof, S. A. (2019). The effects of students’ entrepreneurial characteristics on their propensity to become entrepreneurs in Malaysia. Education + Training, 61(7/8), 1020–1037. https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-11-2018-0229
Contreras-Barraza, N., Espinosa-Cristia, J. F., Salazar-Sepulveda, G., & Vega-Muñoz, A. (2021). Entrepreneurial intention: A gender study in business and economics students from Chile. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13, 4693. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094693
Dash, G., & Paul, J. (2021). CB-SEM vs. PLS-SEM methods for research in social sciences and technology forecasting. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 173, 121092. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2021.121092
Elnadi, M., & Gheith, M. H. (2021). Entrepreneurial ecosystem, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial intention in higher education: Evidence from Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Management Education, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2021.100458
Farrukh, M., Alzubi, Y., Shahzad, I. A., Waheed, A., & Kanwal, N. (2018). Entrepreneurial intentions: The role of personality traits in perspective of the theory of planned behavior. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 12(3), 399–414. https://doi.org/10.1108/apjie-01-2018-0004
Garavan, T. N., & O′Cinneide, B. (1994). Entrepreneurship education and training programmes: A review and evaluation – Part 1. Journal of European Industrial Training, 18(11), 13–21. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090599410073505
Gherghina, S. C., Botezatu, M. A., Hosszu, A., & Simionescu, L. N. (2020). Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs): The engine of economic growth through investments and innovation. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12, 347. https://doi.org/10.3390/SU12010347
Ghozali, I. (2017). Structural Equation Modelling: Concepts and Their Application by AMOS 24 (7th ed.). Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.
Ghozali, I. (2021a). Multivariate Analysis Application by IBM SPSS 26 (10th ed.). Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.
Ghozali, I. (2021b). Structural Equation Modeling with Alternative Method of Partial Least Square (5th ed.). Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.
Hair Jr., J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2019). Multivariate Data Analysis (8th ed.). Cengage Learning, EMEA.
Hartono, J. (2014). Business Research Methodology: Misunderstandings and Experiences(6th ed.). Badan Penerbit Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Gadjah Mada.
Hermawan, R. W., Soetjipto, B. E., & Rahayu, W. P. (2016). The effect of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and locus of control on entrepreneurship interest through entrepreneurship literacy. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 18(2V1), 141–148. https://doi.org/10.9790/487X-1821141148
Hertanto, A. J., & Slamet, F. (2020). Entrepreneurial intention: A study based on individual, situational, and gender difference factors. Jurnal Manajerial & Kewirausahaan, 2(3), 662–672. https://doi.org/10.24912/jmk.v2i3.9578
Hoang, G., Le, T. T. T., Tran, A. K. T., & Du, T. (2021). Entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intentions of university students in Vietnam: The mediating roles of self-efficacy and learning orientation. Education + Training, 63(1), 115–133. https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-05-2020-0142
Hou, F., Su, Y., Lu, M., & Qi, M. (2019). Model of the entrepreneurial intention of university students in the Pearl River Delta of China. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 916. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00916
Hsiao, C., Lee, Y. H., & Chen, H. H. (2016). The effects of internal locus of control on entrepreneurship: The mediating mechanisms of social and human capital. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(11), 1158–1172. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2015.1060511
Hussain, S., Nayab, H. H., Shahzad, F., Fareed, Z., & Abidan, Z. U. (2014). An empirical investigation of entrepreneurial intentions among business students of Pakistan. Studia Universitatis Babeș-Bolyai Oeconomica, 59(2), 68–80. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265958821
Islam, T. (2019). Cultivating entrepreneurs: Role of the university environment, locus of control and self-efficacy. Procedia Computer Science, 158, 642–647. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2019.09.098
Jiatong, W., Murad, M., Bajun, F., Tufail, M. S., Mirza, F., & Rafiq, M. (2021). Impact of entrepreneurial education, mindset, and creativity on entrepreneurial intention: Mediating role of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 724440. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.724440
Kazumi, T., & Kawai, N. (2017). Institutional support and women’s entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 11(3), 345–365. https://doi.org/10.1108/apjie-12-2017-041
Kong, H., & Choo, S. (2022). Gender differences in the relationship between achievement motivation and entrepreneurial intention: A conditional process model of entrepreneurship and gender. SAGE Open, 12(2), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1177/21582440221097897
Liu, Y., Li, M., Li, X., & Zeng, J. (2022). Entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention: The moderating role of the personality and family economic status. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 978480. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.978480
Lv, Y., Chen, Y., Sha, Y., Wang, J., An, L., Chen, T., Huang, X., Huang, Y., & Huang, L. (2021). How entrepreneurship education at universities influences entrepreneurial intention: Mediating effect based on entrepreneurial competence. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 655868. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.655868
Maharana, N., & Chaudhury, S. K. (2022). Entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intent: A comparative study of the private and government university students. IIM Ranchi Journal of Management Studies, 1(2), 191–208. https://doi.org/10.1108/irjms-09-2021-0118
Mahlaole, S. T., & Malebana, M. J. (2022). Effects of gender on students’ entrepreneurial intentions: A theory of planned behavior perspective. Open Journal of Business and Management, 10, 57–76. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojbm.2022.101004
Malebana, M. J., & Swanepoel, E. (2015). Gender differences in entrepreneurial intention in the rural provinces of South Africa. Journal of Contemporary Management, 12(1), 615–637. https://journals.co.za/doi/pdf/10.10520/EJC175051
Mardisentosa, B., & Khusaini, K. (2019). Gender differences in students’ entrepreneurial interest in higher education at Tangerang. Binus Business Review, 10(2), 95–103. https://doi.org/10.21512/bbr.v10i2.5545
Ndofirepi, T. M. (2020). Relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial goal intentions: Psychological traits as mediators. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 9, 2. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13731-020-0115-x
Ndofirepi, T. M. (2022). The effect of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and self-identity on entrepreneurial goal intentions of female and male college students in Zimbabwe. Administrative Sciences, 12, 180. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci12040180
Osiri, J. K., Kungu, K., Amaugo, A., & Francis, J. (2020). Does entrepreneurial education matter in the cultivation of business and social entrepreneurial intentions? Erudio Journal of Educational Innovation, 7(2), 166–175. https://doi.org/10.18551/erudio.7-2.9
Perry, V. G., & Morris, M. D. (2005). Who is in control? The role of self-perception, knowledge, and income in explaining consumer financial behavior. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 39(2), 299–313. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6606.2005.00016.x
Samuel, A. B., & Rahman, M. M. (2018). Innovative teaching methods and entrepreneurship education: A review of the literature. Educational Administration Research and Review, 10(1), 1807–1813. https://doi.org/10.17509/earr.v2i1.21713
Sang, D., & Lin, J. (2019). How does entrepreneurial education influence the entrepreneurial intention of college students: The moderating and mediating effects of entrepreneurial alertness. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 14(8), 139–157. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v14i08.10408
Saoula, O., Shamim, A., Ahmad, M. J., & Abid, M. F. (2023). Do entrepreneurial self-efficacy, entrepreneurial motivation, and family support enhance entrepreneurial intention? The mediating role of entrepreneurial education. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 17(1), 20–45. https://doi.org/10.1108/apjie-06-2022-0055
Saraih, U. N., Aris, A. Z. Z., Mutalib, S. A., Ahmad, T. S. T., Abdullah, S., & Amlus, M. H. (2018). The influence of self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intention among engineering Students. MATEC Web of Conferences, 150, 05051. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201815005051
Shah, I. A., Amjed, S., & Jaboob, S. (2020). The moderating role of entrepreneurship education in shaping entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Economic Structures, 9, 19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40008-020-00195-4
Shahab, Y., Chengang, Y., Arbizu, A. D., & Haider, M. J. (2019). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intention: Do entrepreneurial creativity and education matter? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 25(2), 259–280. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-12-2017-0522
Shmailan, A. B. (2016). Compare the characteristics of male and female entrepreneurs as an explorative study. Journal of Entrepreneurship & Organization Management, 5(4), 1000203. https://doi.org/10.4172/2169-026x.1000203
Sukirno, S. (2019). Macroeconomics: The introduction (3rd ed.). Rajawali Pers.
Tentama, F., & Abdussalam, F. (2020). Internal locus of control and entrepreneurial intention: A study on vocational high school students. Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn), 14(1), 97–102. https://doi.org/10.11591/edulearn.v14i1.13999
Vercruysse, D. (2022). The effect of entrepreneurship education, masculinity, and femininity on the entrepreneurial intention of students. Masculinity Studies - An Interdisciplinary Approach, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.102046
Wade, C., Tavris, C., Sommers, S. R., & Shin, L. (2020). Psychology (13th ed.). Pearson.
Wongnaa, C. A., & Seyram, A. Z. K. (2014). Factors influencing polytechnic students’ decision to graduate as entrepreneurs. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 2, 2. https://doi.org/10.1186/2251-7316-2-2
Yanti, A. (2019). The influence of entrepreneurship education, self-efficacy, locus of control, and entrepreneurial characters on entrepreneurial interests. Maneggio: Jurnal Ilmiah Magister Manajemen, 2(2), 268–283. https://doi.org/10.30596/maneggio.v2i2.3774
Yordanova, D. I., & Tarrazon, M.-A. (2010). Gender differences in entrepreneurial intentions: Evidence from Bulgaria. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 15(3), 245–261. https://doi.org/10.1142/S1084946710001543