Journal of Health and Medical Sciences
Published: 23 February 2021
Arrhythmias in Children with Normal Heart in Albaha, Saudi Arabia
Abdulmajid Almawazini, Saleh Jamaan Al Ghamdi, Chafik Ibrahim Hassan, Sami Ahmed Taha, Ramzi Ahmed Mohammed Alzahrani, Fahad Abdulaziz Jarad Ghamdi, Ahmed Edan Ahmed Alzahrani, Abdallah Madini Mohammed Alghanmy, Mohammed Mahmoud Abdu Alkhairi, Ahmed Yahya Ahmed Alzahrani, Hazem Almawaini, Mohammad Almawazini
King Fahad Hospital Albaha (KSA), Cairo University (Egypt), Bradford University (UK)
Download Full-Text Pdf
Keywords: Children, Arrhythmias, Normal Heart Structure
Introduction: Arrhythmias in children with structurally normal hearts are common and reported as the causes of many hospital admissions. Generally, the risk of death is low. Physical examination is important in children with arrhythmias. Objectives: This study aimed to review the common types and clinical presentations of arrhythmias in children with normal heart structures in Albaha, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: In this hospital-based retrospective cross-sectional study, the medical records of children were reviewed from January 2010 to December 2020. Results: Overall, 214 children were included in this study. The prevalence of arrhythmias was 27.10% in children aged 5-8 years; 18.7%, 8-12 years; 16.82%, 3-5 years; 16.35%, 1-3 years; 13.55%, 12-14 years; and 7.48%, <1 year. Arrhythmias were more frequent in females aged <5 years and in males aged >5 years; however, overall, there was no significant difference between females (47.20%) and males (52.80%). Supraventricular arrhythmias were the commonest and found in 85% of the children and ventricular arrhythmias were found in 15%. Sinus tachycardia was the most common type of arrhythmia, reported in 25% of the children. Conclusion: In general, arrhythmias in the children are asymptomatic. History, clinical examination, and electrocardiography are important for the diagnosis. Supraventricular arrhythmias are the most common. There is no significant difference between females and males with respect to the prevalence of arrhythmias.
John M Miller, Douglas P Zipes. Braunwald’s Heart Disease. A textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 10th ed. Philadelphia: 2015. Diagnosis of Cardiac Arrhythmias. In: Mann, Zipes, Libby, Bonow editors; p. 662. [Google Scholar].
Emily Anne Schlechte, Nicole Boramanand, Marjorie Funk. Supraventricular tachycardia in the pediatric primary care setting: Age-related presentation, diagnosis, and management. J Pediatr Health Care. Sep-Oct 2008; 22(5):289-99. Doi: 10.1016/ j.pedhc. 2007. 08. 013. Epub 2008 Mar 4.
Niwa K. Warita N, Sunami Y Shimura A, Tateno S, Sugita K. Prevalence of arrhythmias and conduction disturbances in large population-based samples of children. Cardiology in the Young. 2004;14:68–74. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].
Reena M Ghosh, Gregory J Gates, Christine A Walsh, Myles S Schiller, Robert H Pass, Scott R Ceresnak, DOI: 10.1007/s00246-014-1053-9 The prevalence of arrhythmias, predictors for arrhythmias, and safety of exercise stress testing in children, Pediatr Cardiol. 2015 Mar; 36(3):584-90. doi: 10.1007/s00246-014-1053-9. Epub 2014 Nov 11.
Martial M Massin, Avram Benatar, Gilles Rondia. Epidemiology and outcome of tachyarrhythmias in tertiary pediatric cardiac centers. Cardiology. 2008; 111(3):191-6. doi: 10.1159/000121603. Epub 2008 Apr 25. PMID: 18434724.
Schlechte EA, Boramanand N, Funk M. Supraventricular tachycardia in the pediatric primary care setting: Age-related presentation, diagnosis, and management. J Pediatr Health Care. 2008; 22(5):289–99.
Gregory Webster, Rachael Olson, Zachary J Schoppen, Nicholas Giancola, Lauren C Balmert, Sara Cherny, Alfred L George JrCardiac Evaluation of Children With a Family History of Sudden Death. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Aug 13;74(6):759-770. doi: 10.1016 / j.jacc. 2019.05.062.
Lu CW, Wu MH, Chen HC, Kao FY, Huang SK. Epidemiological profile of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in a general population younger than 50 years of age in an era of radiofrequency catheter ablation. International Journal of cardiology, 2014; 174 (3):530-34.
Cheng S, Keyes MJ, Larson MG, McCabe EL, Newton-Cheh C, Levy D, Benjamin EJ, Vasan RS, Wang TJ. Long-term outcomes in individuals with prolonged PR interval or first-degree atrioventricular block. Jama. 2009; 301(24):2571–7.
Zhi Du, Liying Xing, Min Lin, Yuanmeng Tian, Li Jing , Han Yan, Boqiang Zhang, Shuang Liu, Shiwen Yu, Sun. Prevalence of first-degree atrioventricular block and the associated risk factors: a cross-sectional study in rural Northeast China. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2019 Oct 7; 19(1):214. Doi: 10.1186/s12872-019-1202-4.
Robert M. Kliegman, MD, Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. Twentieth edition. ISBN: 978-1-4557-7566-8. ISBN: 978-0-323-35307-6. Copyright © 2016 by Elsevier, Inc.
Nabil El-Sherif, Gioia Turitto, Mohamed Boutjdir. Congenital Long QT syndrome and torsade de pointes. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. PMID: 28670758. 2017 Nov; 22(6):e12481. doi: 10.1111/anec.12481. Epub 2017 Jul 2.
Friedman D, Rupel A. Congenital heart block in neonatal lupus: the paediatric cardiologist’s perspective. Indian J Paediatr. 2002; 69(6):517–22.
Mitchell I Cohen. Frequent premature ventricular beats in healthy children: when to ignore and when to treat? Curr Opin Cardiol. PMID: 30407229. Doi: 10.1097/ HCO. 0000000000000581. 2019 Jan; 34(1):65-72.
Jon Wiley and Sons INC publication; Leslie Kish, University of Michigan; Wiley classics library edition published 2004; Statistical design for research; N=t2 PQ/D2.
Allen, Hugh D.; Driscoll, David J.; Shaddy, Robert E.; Feltes, Timothy F. Moss and Adams' Heart Disease in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Including the Fetus and Young Adults, 7th Edition, Copyright Â©2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.