Journal of Health and Medical Sciences
Published: 06 November 2020
Health Conditions of Landfills Workers, Lagos State, Nigeria
O. Samson Akparorue, A. Abiodun Denloye, A. Oluwakemi Ajelana
Lagos State University
Download Full-Text Pdf
Keywords: Health Conditions, Landfill Workers, Causative Agents, Solid Waste, Sickness/Disease
This study investigated health conditions of landfills workers in Lagos State, Nigeria. The adverse effects of different management practices particularly from landfills are enormous with such concerns on health conditions of workers prompted the interest of this paper. The objective was to identify the causative agents associated with diseases occurring amongst landfill workers and to evaluate its potential health issues including psychological effects, diseases, and accidents of solid waste on humans while also identifying types of sicknesses amongst workers at Landfill Sites in Lagos State. The research design adopted was a survey descriptive method. Convenience sampling technique was employed to select 336 respondents using questionnaire which was structured on a 2-6-point Likert Scale. The Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients for the constructs ranged between 0.727 and 0.930. The response rate was 75.5% and data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Data gathered were analyzed with the aid of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) via Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). The result obtained indicate a significant and positive relationship between causative agents associated with diseases and landfill workers in Lagos State. Results also showed a positive correlation between potential health effects and landfill workers in Lagos State. It further showed that the levels of heavy metals in the soil were within acceptable limit relative to World Health Organization’s standard. It is also noted that people living and doing business in the landfill were at risk from diseases. Microbial organisms such as E. coli, Salmonella Sp, Klebsiella Sp, Staphylcoccus aureus and Psendomonas Sp were also isolated. Provision of solid waste workers with Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), restriction of access to landfill sites, and review of existing laws to ensure compliance are strongly recommended.
Ajadike J. C. (2001). Urban solid waste: problems and management in Nigeria. In Ofomata, G. E. K. & Phil-Eze P. O. (Eds.) Geographical perspectives on environmental problems and management in Nigeria. Nigeria: James Ent. Pp.134-181.
Alabi, O. A. (2012). Comparative evaluation of environmental contamination and DNA damage induced by electronic-waste in Nigeria and China. Science of the Total Environment, 423(6), 62-72.
Cole, E. C. (2015). Internal medical waste management. Durham, North Carolina: Thompson Press.
Ebere, N. (2000). Democratizing the planning process in Nigeria through public participation, a challenge to town planners in the 21st century. Journal of the Nigeria Institute of Town Planners, XIII (2), 1-11.
Eludoyin, A. O. & Oyeku, O. T. (2010). Heavy metal contamination of groundwater 445 resources in a Nigerian urban settlement. African Journal of Environmental 446 Science and Technology, 4(4), 201-214.
Environmental and Social Safeguards Audit (2015). Environmental and social safeguards audit. Abuja, Nigeria: National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA). Retrieved 30th March, 2020 from: . org/curated/en/.
Environmental Justice Atlas, (2017). E-waste in Lagos, Nigeria. Retrieved 30th March 2020 from:
Ezirim, I. & Agbo, F. (2018). Role of national policy in improving health care waste management in Nigeria. Journal of Health & Pollution, 8(19), 1-8.
Fielder, H. M. P., Poon, K. C., Palmer, S. R., & Coleman, G. (2000). Assessment of the impact on health of residents living near the Nanty-Gwyddon Landfill site. Journal of Environmental Management, 8(3), 19-23.
Grant, K. (2013). Health consequences of exposure to e-waste: A systematic review” in Lancet Global Health, 1(1), 350-361.
Gustavsson P. (1989). Mortality among workers at a municipal waste incinerator. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 15(2), 2002-2009.
International Labour Organization [ILO], (2019). From waste to jobs: Decent work challenges and opportunities in the management of e-waste in Nigeria, International Labour Office, Sectoral Policies Department. Geneva: ILO.
Isemekhai, K. A. (2016). Environmental risk assessment for an informal e-waste recycling site in Lagos state, Nigeria. Middlesex: Middlesex University.
Kumar, S., Bathma, V., Dixit, A. K. & Parashau, L. (2020). Assessment of respiratory health of landfill workers and its correlation with their knowledge and use of personal protective equipment’s. National Journal of Community Medicine, 11(1), 53-56.
Longe, E. O. & Balogun, M. R. (2010). Groundwater quality assessment near a municipal landfill, Lagos, Nigeria. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 2(1), 39-44.
Martine, V. (2010). Health effects of residence near hazardous waste landfill sites: A Review of Epidemiologic Literature. Environmental Health Perspective, 1(8), 101-463.
Niekerk, S. & Weghmann, V. (2019). Municipal solid waste management services in Africa. Working Paper.
Ogungbuyi, O. (2016). E-waste country assessment Nigeria; e-Waste Africa project of the Secretariat of the Basel Convention.The Secretariat of the Basel Convention and the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology - Empa. Retrieved 12th March, 2020 from:
Osibanjo, O. (2015). Gender and e-waste management in Africa. Nigeria: Basel Convention Coordinating Centre for the African Region.
Oyeniyi, B. A. (2011). Waste management in contemporary: The Abuja example. International Journal of Politics and Goods Governance, 2(2.2), 1-18.
Oyesiku, R. (1998). Citizen participation in environmental planning and management, in Nigeria. Lagos: Pumark Publishers.
Rotich, K. H., Zhao, Y., & Dong, T. (2005) Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries. China: College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, China.
Schenck, C. J., Blaauw, P. F., Viljoen, J. M. M. & Swart, E. C. (2019). Exploring the potential health risks faced by waste pickers on landfills in South Africa: A socio-ecological perspective. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 6(2), 818-822.
Singh, S. K., Chokhandre, P., Salve, P. S. & Rajak, R. (2020). Open dumping site and health risks to proximate communities in Mumbai, India: A cross-sectional case-comparison study. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health. Retrieved 11th February, 2020 from .
Staines, A., Crowley, D., Bruen, M. & O’Connor, P. (2019). Public health and landfill sites. Dublin: Department of Public Health and Epidemiology.
U.S. Department for Health and Human Services (1995).
United Nations (2011). United Nations University/ step initiative, 2011. One Global Definition of E-waste. (Bonn, Solving the E-Waste problem White Paper).
Wikipedia (2020). Disease causative agent. The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 30th March 2020 from .
World Health Organization. (2011). Basic steps in the preparation of health care and waste management plans for health care establishments. Geneva/Switzerland: WHO.
Zheng, C. & Wang, P. (1999). A modular three-dimensional multi-species transport model for simulation of advection, dispersion and chemical reactions of contaminants in groundwater systems: documentation and user's guide. Vicksburg, Missouri, US Army Engineer Research and Development Center: p. 202.