Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Journal of Health and Medical Sciences

ISSN 2622-7258

Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.24.09 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.24.02 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.23.57 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.23.52 AM.png
open access

Published: 15 February 2019

Hypertension a Cause and Concern for Various Cardiovascular Diseases in Male and Female Population

Raisa Nazir Ahmed Kazi, Sudha Anbalagan, Shaheena Tabassum Ahsan

Prince Sattam Bin Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia

journal of social and political sciences
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf




Hypertension is the leading cause for the onset of many cardiovascular diseases and a predominant health care burden in Arab countries. Increased prevalence of hypertension is observed in obese teens, and adult population increases the risk for many cardiovascular diseases, renal functional derangement, and cerebral stroke. The present study aims to find out the prevalence of hypertension among male and female populations in the Wadi Aldawasir region of Saudi Arabia. Data were collected from the medical record for the patient visiting Wadi Aldawasir general hospital during the period of 2014-2018. Off the total of 347 male and female populations, 234 were diagnosed with hypertension that accounts for 67 percentages. Among, 347 total patients, 137 were female, and 97 were male. The result of the study showed that the prevalence of hypertension was higher among both male and female adult. However, the incidence of hypertension was more in female compared to male. Considering the observed prevalence of hypertension in both male and female population and because of the subsequent outcomes of hypertension on the cardiovascular functioning, therapeutic intervention, and effective community-based health care programs in educating the people about the risk factors of hypertension is required in this region of Saudi Arabia.


  1. Kumosani, Taha Abdullah, Mohamed Nabil Alama, and Archana Iyer. "Cardiovascular diseases in Saudi Arabia." Prime Res Med 1 (2011): 1-6.

  2. Steyn, Krisela, and Albertino Damasceno. "Lifestyle and related risk factors for chronic diseases." Disease and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa 2 (2006): 247-65.

  3. Al Alwan, Ibrahim, et al. "Prevalence of Self-reported Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Saudi Physicians: A Comparative Study." International journal of health sciences 7.1 (2013)

  4. Khatib, O. "Noncommunicable diseases: risk factors and regional strategies for prevention and care." (2004).

  5. Executive Board of Health Ministers Council for GCC states, “Health Indicators for the Cooperation states No. 14,” Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 2008.

  6. Abdulrahman O. Musaiger, Hamed R. Takruri, Abdelmonem S. Hassan, and Hamza Abu-Tarboush, “Food-Based Dietary Guidelines for the Arab Gulf Countries,” Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 2012, Article ID 905303, 10 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/905303.

  7. Musaiger, Abdulrahman O. "Diet and prevention of coronary heart disease in the Arab Middle East countries." Medical principles and practice 11. Suppl. 2 (2002): 9-16.

  8. S. Lewington, R. Clarke, N. Qizilbash, R. Peto, R. Collins, Age-specific relevanceof usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individualdata for one million adults in 61 prospective studies, Lancet 360 (2002)1903–1913.[4]

  9. K.A. Britton, J.M. Gaziano, L. Djousse, Normal systolic blood pressure and riskof heart failure in US male physicians, Eur. J. Heart Fail. 11 (2009) 1129–1134.[5]

  10. R.G. Kalaitzidis, G.L. Bakris, Prehypertension: is it relevant for nephrologists, Kidney Int. 77 (2010) 194–200.

  11. K. Wolf-Maier, R.S. Cooper, J.R. Banegas, S. Giampaoli, H.W. Hense, M. Joffres, M. Kastarinen, N. Poulter, P. Primatesta, F. Rodriguez-Artalejo, B. Stegmayr, M.Thamm, J. Tuomilehto, D. Vanuzzo, F. Vescio, Hypertension prevalence andblood pressure levels in 6 European countries, Canada, and the United States, JAMA 289 (2003) 2363–2369.

  12. .preventing hypertension: a hopeless dream?-The Lancet

  13. Tran, Jackie, Masoud Mirzaei, and Stephen Leeder. "Hypertension: its prevalence and population-attributable fraction for mortality from stroke in the Middle East and north Africa." Circulation. Vol. 122. No. 2. 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2010.

  14. Yach, Derek, et al. "The global burden of chronic diseases: overcoming impediments to prevention and control." Jama291.21 (2004): 2616-2622.

  15. Aldiab, A., Shubair, M. M., Al-Zahrani, J. M., Aldossari, K. K., Al-Ghamdi, S., Househ, M., & Jradi, H. (2018). Prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension and its associated cardioembolic risk factors; a population based cross-sectional study in Alkharj, Saudi Arabia. BMC public health, 18(1), 1327.

  16. A. M. Richards, M. G. Nicholls, R. W. Troughton et al., “Antecedent hypertension and heart failure after myocardial infarction,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 1182–1188, 2002.

  17. D. Levy, P. W. F. Wilson, K. M. Anderson, and W. P. Castelli, “Stratifying the patient at risk from coronary disease: new insights from the Framingham Heart Study,” American Heart Journal, vol. 119, no. 3, part 2, pp. 712–717, 1990. 

  18. V. J. Dzau, “Atherosclerosis and hypertension: mechanisms and interrelationships,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 15, supplement 5, pp. S59–S64, 1990.

  19. 19)M. Adamczak, M. Zeier, R. Dikow, and E. Ritz, “Kidney and hypertension,” Kidney International, Supplement, vol. 61, no. 80, pp. S62–S67, 2002. 

  20. S. Lewington, R. Clarke, N. Qizilbash, R. Peto, and R. Collins, “Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies,” Lancet, vol. 360, no. 9349, pp. 1903–1913, 2002, Erratum in: Lancet, vol. 361, no. 9362, p. 106, 2003.

  21. K. Miura, M. L. Daviglus, A. R. Dyer et al., “Relationship of blood pressure to 25-year mortality due to coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases, and all causes in young adult men: the chicago heart association detection project in industry,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 161, no. 12, pp. 1501–1508, 2001. 

  22. J. M. Murabito, R. B. D'Agostino, H. Silbershatz, and P. W. F. Wilson, “Intermittent claudication: a risk profile from the Framingham Heart Study,” Circulation, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 44–49, 1997. 

  23. Al-Homrany, M. A., Khan, M. Y., Al-Khaldi, Y. M., Al-Gelban, K. S., & Al-Amri, H. S. (2008). Hypertension care at primary health care centers: a report from Abha, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation, 19(6), 990.

  24. Lloyd-Jones, D. M., Leip, E. P., Larson, M. G., Vasan, R. S., & Levy, D. (2005). Novel approach to examining first cardiovascular events after hypertension onset. Hypertension, 45(1), 39-45.

  25. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), Stacked bar chart, Saudi Arabia. Deaths.1990–2010 [Internet], IHME, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash, USA, 2013,

  26. Khakwani, Sehrish, Hira Bushra, and Salman Yousaf. "Major Risk for cardiovascular Diseases-Hypertension." PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL & HEALTH SCIENCES 11.3 (2017): 1133-1134.

  27. A. Mehio Sibai, L. Nasreddine, A. H. Mokdad, N. Adra, M. Tabet, and N. Hwalla, “Nutrition transition and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Middle East and North Africa countries: reviewing the evidence,” Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 57, no. 3-4, pp. 193–203, 2010.

  28. Rouf, Abdul, et al. "Prevalence of Hypertension and its Association with Waist Circumference in Adult Population of Block Hazratbal, Srinagar, India." Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research (2018).

  29. DeMarco VG, Aroor AR, Sowers JR. The pathophysiology of hypertension in patients with obesity. Nature reviews Endocrinology. 2014;10(6):364-376. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2014.44.

  30. SS, M. Alqarni. "A review of prevalence of obesity in Saudi Arabia." J Obes Eat Disord 2.2 (2016).



  33. MacMahon S, Stamler J, Peto R, Cutler J, Collins R, Sørlie P, Neaton J, Abbott R, Godwin J, Dyer A: Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 1. Prolonged differences in blood pressure: prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet 1990;335:765– 774. 4

  34. World Health Organization: Arterial hypertension. Report of a WHO expert committee. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 1978;628: 7–56.

  35. Yamani M, Massie B: Hypertension, myocardial ischemia and sudden death. Curr Opin Cardiol 1994;9:542–550.

  36. Petrovitch H, Curb J, Bloom-Marcus E: Isolated systolic hypertension and risk of stroke in Japanese-American men. Stroke 1995;26: 25–29.

  37. WHO/EMRO, “Non-communicable Diseases: Challenge and Strategic Direction,” Regional Office of Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, 2005.