Journal of Health and Medical Sciences
Published: 08 April 2022
Immunohistochemical Expression of Cyclin D1 in Oral Lichen Planus
Mustafa M. Abdulhussain, Fawaz D. Alaswad
Mustansiriyah University (Iraq), Baghdad University (Iraq)
Download Full-Text Pdf
Keywords: Immunohistochemistry, CyclinD1, Malignancy, Oral Lichen Planus
Background: Many studies have reported that a condition initially classified as oral lichen planus (OLP) has a variable chance of developing cancer progression over time, although these results are still questionable. Cyclin D1 controls the mitotic cell cycle's transition from G1 to S. Cyclin D1 has a significant function in carcinogenesis due to its critical involvement in cell cycle control. Cyclin D1 deregulation or overexpression may result in shortened G1 phase, enhanced cell replication, and decreased reliance on growth regulators, causing disruption in conventional cell cycle progression and the progression of cancer. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the expression of Cyclin D1 in histopathologically confirmed OLP samples and to predict the rate of malignant transformation in these lesions by comparing the level of expression with some clinical parameters. Materials and Methods: The immunohistochemical procedure was used to examine the expression of cyclin D1 on paraffin-embedded sections of (40) OLP lesions and (10) specimens of normal oral mucosa. We used the SPSS software version (18.0) to do the statistical analysis in this work. Results: There is a very significant difference between the people investigated (P = 0.01), which is statistically significant. CyclinD1 was found in all of the oral lichen planus cases in the research (100%), but it was also found (80%) in the normal oral mucosa. There was also no statistically significant difference between the clinical types of OLP and the Cyclin D1 scoring (P = 0.942), which revealed that the reticular type was the most frequent (7) in mild scoring, whereas the erosive type was the most frequent in severe scoring, which accounted for the majority of the cases. Conclusion: This research found that higher cyclinD1 expression increases the risk of cancer and many of the markers should be tested. Furthermore, larger sample numbers, improved designs, and gene-reduction studies should be performed. OLP patients should be continuously monitored for OSCC progression.
Abid AM, Merza MS. Immunohistochemical expression of Cyclin D1 and NF-KB p65 in oral lichen planus and oral squamous cellcarcinoma (Comparative study). J Bagh College Dentistry. 2014; 26(1):80-7.
Agha-Hosseini F, Mirzaii-Dizgah I, Abdollahi M, AkbariGillani N. Efficacy of IMOD in the treatment of oral lichen planus—efficacy of IMOD in oral lichen planus. Open J Stomatol 2011 Jun;1(2):13-17.
Aghbari SMH, Abushouk AI, Attia A, Elmaraezy A, Menshawy A, Ahmed MS, Elsaadany BA, Ahmed EM. Malignant transformation of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions: a meta-analysis of 20095 patient data. Oral Oncol 2017; 68:92- 102.
Bardellini E, Amadori F, Flocchini P, Bonadeo S, Majorana A. Clinicopathological features and malignant transformation of oral lichen planus: a 12-years retrospective study. Acta Odontol Scand 2013;71:834-40.
Bascones C, Gonzalez-Moles MA, Esparza G, Bravo M, Acevedo A, Gil-Montoya JA, et al. Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in oral lichen planus Hypothesis on their possible influence on its malignant transformation. Arch Oral Biol. 2005; 50(10):873-81.
Bascones-Ilundain C, González-Moles MA, Campo-Trapero J, Gil-Montoya JA, Esparza-Gómez GC, Cano-Sánchez J, Bascones-Martínez A. No differences in caspase-3 and Bax expression in atrophic-erosive vs. reticular oral lichen planus. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2008;22:204-12.
Basnaker, S.S. and Satish, B.N.V.S., 2014. Cyclin d1 gene expression in oral mucosa of tobacco chewers”–an immunohistochemical study. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR, 8(5), p.ZC70.
Batool, S., Fahim, A., Qureshi, A., Anas, S., Qamar, N. and Kamran, S., 2019. Significance of Expression of Cyclin D as an Early Indicator in Dysplastic Transformation of Oral Mucosa in Tobacco Users. JPDA, 28(04).
Bombeccari GP, Guzzi G, Tettamanti M, Giannì AB, Baj A, Pallotti F, Spadari F. Oral lichen planus and malignant transformation: a longitudinal cohort study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011 Sep;112(3):328-334
Carlos de Vicente J, Herrero-Zapatero A, Fresno MF, Lopez-Arranz JS. Expression of cyclin D1 and Ki-67 in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: clinicopathological and prognostic significance. Oral Oncol. 2002; 38(3):301- 8.
De Sousa FA, Paradella TC, Carvalho YR, Rosa LE. Comparative analysis of the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p53, bax, and bcl-2 in oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Annals of Diagnostic Pathology. 2009 Oct 1; 13(5):308-12.
Dragomir LP, Simionescu C, Mărgăritescu CL, Stepan A, Dragomir IM, Popescu MR. P53, p16 and Ki67 immunoexpression in oral squamous carcinomas. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2012 Jan 1; 53(1):89-93.
Fitzpatrick SG, Hirsch SA, Gordon SC. The malignant transformation of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions: a systematic review. J Am Dent Assoc. 2014; 145(1):45-56.
Gambichler T, Jaedicke V, Terras S. Optical coherence tomography in dermatology: technical and clinical aspects. Archives of dermatological research. 2011 Sep; 303(7):457-73.
Gandolfo S, Richiardi L, Carrozzo M, Broccoletti R, Carbone M, Pagano M, Vestita C, Rosso S, Merletti F. Risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma in 402 patients with oral lichen planus: a follow-up study in an Italian population. Oral Oncol 2004 Jan; 40(1):77-83.
Georgescu SR, Ene CD, Nicolae I, Mitran M, Musetescu A, Matei C, Rusu LC, Tampa M. Reflectometric analysis for identification of various pathological conditions associated with lichen planus. Rev Chim 2017; 68:1103-8.
Ghallab NA, Kasem RF, El-Ghani A, Fathy S, Shaker OG. Gene expression of miRNA-138 and cyclin D1 in oral lichen planus. Egyptian Dental Journal. 2017 Jan 1;63(1-January (Oral Medicine, X-Ray, Oral Biology & Oral Pathology)):625-38.
Giannetti L, Dello Diago AM, Spinas E. Oral lichen planus. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2018;32:391-5
Giuliani M, Troiano G, Cordaro M, Corsalini M, Gioco G, Lo Muzio L, Pignatelli P, Lajolo C. Rate of malignant transformation of oral lichen planus: a systematic review. Oral Dis 2019; 25:693-709.
González-Moles MA, Bascones-Ilundain C, Montoya JG, Ruiz-Avila I, and Delgado-Rodríguez M, Bascones-Martínez A. Cell cycle regulating mechanisms in oral lichen planus: molecular bases in epithelium predisposed to malignant transformation. Archives of oral biology. 2006 Dec 1; 51(12):1093-103.
Hadzi-Mihailovic M, Petrovic R, Raybaud H, Stanimirovic D, Koray MO. Expression and role of p53 in oral lichen planus patients. J BUON 2017; 22:1278-86.
Hwang EC, Choi SY, Kim JH. Malignant transformation of oral lichen planus and related genetic factors. International Journal of Oral Biology. 2020; 45(1):1-7.
Irani S, Esfahani A, Ghorbani A. Dysplastic change rate in cases of oral lichen planus: A retrospective study of 112 cases in an Iranian population. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2016; 20:395-9.
Kurago ZB. Etiology and pathogenesis of oral lichen planus: an overview. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2016; 122(1):72-80.
Laniosz V, Torgerson RR, Ramos-Rodriguez AJ, Ma JE, Mara KC, Weaver AL, Bruce AJ. Incidence of squamous cell carcinoma in oral lichen planus: a 25-year population-based study. Int J Dermatol 2019; 58:296-301.
Lavanya N, Jayanthi P, Rao UK, Ranganathan K. Oral lichen planus: An update on pathogenesis and treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2011; 15(2):127-32.
Lorenzini G, Viviano M, Chisci E, Chisci G, Picciotti M. A comparative immunohistochemical and immunophenotypical study on lymphocytes expression in patients affected by oral lichen planus. J Oral Pathol Med 2013; 42:642-7.
Mahboobi N, Agha-Hosseini F, Lankarani KB. Hepatitis C virus and lichen planus: the real association. Hepat Mon 2010 Summer; 10(3):161-164.
Martin-Ezquerra G, Salgado R, Toll A, Gilaberte M, Baro T, Alameda Quitllet F, et al. Multiple genetic copy number alterations in oral squamous cell carcinoma: study of MYC, TP53, CCDN1, EGFR and ERBB2 status in primary and metastatic tumours. Br J Dermatol. 2010;163(5):1028-35.
Mattsson U, Jontell M, Holmstrup P. Oral lichen planus and malignant transformation: is a recall of patients justified? Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2002; 13(5):390-396.
Mignogna M, Muzio LL, Russo LL, Fedele S, Ruoppo E, Bucci E. Clinical guidelines in early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma arising in oral lichen planus: a 5-year experience. Oral Oncol 2001 Apr; 37(3):262-267.
Mortazavi H, Baharvand M, Mehdipour M. Oral potentially malignant disorders: An overview of more than 20 entities. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospect 2014; 8:6‑14.
Partridge M, Gaballah K, Huang X. Molecular markers for diagnosis and prognosis. Cancer Metastasis Rev 2005; 24:71‑85.
Peng Q, Zhang J, Ye X, Zhou G. Tumor-like microenvironment in oral lichen planus: evidence of malignant transformation? Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2017; 13:635-43.
Pitiyage G, Tilakaratne WM, Tavassoli M, Warnakulasuriya S. Molecular markers in oral epithelial dysplasia: Review. Oral Pathol Med 2009;38:737‑52
Poomsawat S, Buajeeb W, Khovidhunkit SO, Punyasingh J. Alteration in the expression of cdk4 and cdk6 proteins in oral cancer and premalignant lesions. J Oral Pathol Med. 2010;39(10):793-9. Epub 2010/07/14.
Poomsawat S, W. Buajeeb, S.-o. P. Khovidhunkit, and J. Punyasingh, “Overexpression of cdk4 and p16 in oral lichen planus supports the concept of premalignancy,” Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 294–299, 2011.
Raju B, Mehrotra R, ØIJORDSBAKKEN G, Al-Sharabi AK, Vasstrand EN, Ibrahim SO. Expression of p53, cyclin D1 and Ki-67 in pre-malignant and malignant oral lesions: association with clinicopathological parameters. Anticancer research. 2005 Nov 1; 25(6C):4699-706.
Ramakrishna, A., SHREEDHAR, B., NARAYAN, T., MOHANTY, L., SHENOY, S., JAMADAR, S. J. J. O. O. & JOMFP, M. P. 2013. Cyclin D1 an early biomarker in oral carcinogenesis. 17, 351.
Rezaee M, Tadbir AA, Akbari B. CDK6 Expression in Oral Lichen Planus. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research. 2013;16(10):1297-302.
Roopashree MR, Gondhalekar RV, Shashikanth MC, George J, Thippeswamy SH, Shukla A. Pathogenesis of oral lichen planus - a review. J Oral Pathol Med 2010; 39:729-34.
Sagari S, Sanadhya S, Doddamani M, Rajput R. Molecular markers in oral lichen planus: A systematic review. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2016; 20:115.
Sharada P, Swaminathan U, Nagamalini BR, Vinodkumar K, Ashwini BK, Lavanya V. A Semi-quantitative analysis of immunohistochemical expression of p63, Ki-67, Cyclin-D1, and p16 in common oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma. J NTR Univ Health Sci 2018;7:120-8
Shen Z-Y, Liu W, Feng J-Q, Zhou H-W, Zhou Z-T. Squamous cell carcinoma development in previously diagnosed oral lichen planus: de novo or transformation? Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011 Nov;112(5): 592-596
Siar CH, Mah MC, Gill PP. Risk of the contralateral mucosa in patients with oral potentially malignant disorders. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011 Jan 1; 12(3):631-5.
Sugerman P, Savage N. Oral lichen planus: causes, diagnosis and management. Aust Dent J 2002 Dec; 47(4):290-297.
Sugerman PB, Savage NW, Walsh LJ, Zhao ZZ, Zhou XJ, Khan A, et al. The pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2002; 13(4):350-65.
Tizeira HEL, Aguas SC, Sano SM. Transformación maligna Del líquen plano bucalatípico: análisis de 32 casos. Med Oral 2003; 8:2-9.
Tripathi AK, Gupta V, Chaturvedi R, Maheshwari P, Kumar A. A study on the expressions of Ki-67 and Cyclin-D1 in oral pre malignant lesions, 2018.
Van der Meij EH, Schepman K-P, van der Waal I. The possible premalignant character of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions: a prospective study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2003 Aug; 96(2):164-171.
Yao X, Yin C, Shen LJ, Xie SM. [Expressions of NF- -kappaBp65, TRAF2, cyclinD1 and their association with cell apoptosis in oral lichen planus]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2007; 27(11):1657-60.
Zhang Z, Chen L, Hong Q, Sun S. Expression of TGF-β1, Smad 4 and Cyclin D1 in oral lichen planus. Chinese J Conser Dent. 2010; 11.
Zhou G, Zhang J, Ren XW, Hu JY, Du GF, Xu XY. Increased B7-H1 expression on peripheral blood T cells in oral lichen planus correlated with disease severity. J Clin Immunol 2012; 32:794-801.
Zuo YL, Gong DP, Li BZ, Zhao J, Zhou LY, Shao FY, et al. The TF-miRNA Coregulation Network in Oral Lichen Planus. Biomed Res Int. 2015; 731264.