Journal of Health and Medical Sciences

ISSN 2622-7258

Published: 30 November 2020

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Medical Students towards COVID-19 Pandemic in a Nigerian Tertiary Institution

Hope O Nwoga, Miriam O Ajuba, Uche E Ezeoke

Enugu State University Teaching Hospital Parklane Enugu, Nigeria

pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf


Pages: 522-534

Keywords: COVID-19, Enugu State, Medical Students, Nigeria, Tertiary Health Facility


The novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) SARS-CoV-2, is an evolving respiratory disease which was first detected in December, 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has eventually spread to larger parts of the world. COVID-19 may result in mild to severe respiratory distress, depending on the individuals´ age and immune system as well as the presence of any underlying conditions. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of medical students towards COVID-19. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study that involved all the medical students in Enugu State University College of Medicine, Enugu State, Nigeria. Data was collected with an online questionnaire formulated in Google form. It was shared through their different class online platforms (WhatsApp). All the data were analyzed using SPSS version 25. Categorical variables were presented in the form of frequencies and percentages. Majority of the students were within the 15-24 years age group (79.3%), females (62.1%) and single (98.3%). All the students were of Igbo Ethnic group and Christians. Most of them were in their 5th year of study (39.7%). About 65.4% of the students had good knowledge of COVID-19, while 48.6% of them had good attitude towards COVID-19. Majority of them (77.6%) however, had good practice towards COVID-19. There is poor attitude of the medical students towards the COVID-19 pandemic but they had better knowledge and practice towards the pandemic. Measures should be put in place to address attitudinal change among this group of students towards infectious diseases like the present COVID-19.


  1. Abdelhafiz AS, Mohammed Z, Ibrahim ME. (2020).Knowledge, perceptions, and attitude of Egyptians towards the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). J Community Health, 45:881–890.

  2. Asraf H, Garima T, Singh BM, Ram R , Tripti RP. (2020).Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Nepalese Residents: A quick online cross-sectional survey. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences, 11(3): 6-11

  3. Bai Y, Yao L, Wei T, Tian F, Jin D, Chen L, et al. (2020). Presumed asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID-19. JAMA, doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.2565

  4. Bhagavathula AS, Aldhaleei WA, Rahmani J, Mahabadi MA, Bandari DK. (2020). Knowledge and perceptions of COVID-19 among health care workers: cross sectional study. JMIR Public Health Surveill, 6(2):e19160

  5. Çalışkan F, Mıdık Ö, Baykan Z, Şenol Y, Tanrıverdi EC, Tengiz FI etal. (2020). The knowledge level and perceptions toward COVID-19 among Turkish final year medical students. Postgraduate Medicine, doi: 10.1080/00325481.2020.1795486

  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)URL: 2019-ncov/index.html [Accessed 29/09/2020]

  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Standard precautions. Excerpt from the guideline for isolations; preventing transmission of infectious agents in the healthcare settings 2007. Available at http;// isolation standard. [Accessed 29/9/2020]

  8. Geldsetzer P. (2020). Knowledge and perceptions of COVID-19 among the general public in the United States and the United Kingdom: a cross-sectional online survey. Ann Intern Med, 1–4. 22

  9. Gorbalenya AE. (2020).Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus–The species and its viruses, a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group. BioRxiv

  10. Habibzadeh P, Stoneman EK. (2020). The Novel Coronavirus: A Bird’s Eye View. Int J Occup Environ Med, 11(2):65-71. doi: 10.15171/ijoem.2020.1921

  11. Halboub ES, Al-Maweri SA, Al-Jamaei AA, Tarakji B, Al-Soneidar WA. (2015). Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of infection control among dental students at Sana'a University, Yemen. J Int Oral Health, 7(5):15-19

  12. Harvey A. (2020). Covid-19: medical schools given powers to graduate final year students early to help NHS. BMJ. 26;368:m1227. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m1227

  13. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet, 395(10223):497-506.

  14. International Federation of Medical Students' Association. (2020). IFMSA COVID19 response URL: covid19/ [Accessed 26/09/2020]

  15. Jiang L, Ng IHL, Hou Y, Li D, Tan LWL, Ho HJA, et al. (2018). Infectious disease transmission: survey of contacts between hospital-based healthcare workers and working adults from the general population. J Hosp Infect, 98:404e11.

  16. Khasawneh AI, Humeidan AA, Alsulaiman JW, Bloukh S, Ramadan M, Al-Shatanawi TN et al. (2020). Medical Students and COVID-19: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Precautionary Measures. A Descriptive Study from Jordan. Front. Public Health, 8:253.

  17. Kim JS, Choi JS. (2016). Middle East respiratory syndrome–related knowledge, preventive behaviours and risk perception among nursing students during outbreak. J Clin Nurs, 25(17- 18):2542-9. doi: 10.1111/jocn.13295.

  18. Kushalkumar HG, Prati BP, Pushti MS, Jay RP, Niraj P, Asavari R. (2020). Knowledge and perceptions about COVID-19 among the medical and allied health science students in India: An online cross-sectional survey. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health,

  19. Lai CC, Shih TP, Ko WC, Tang HJ, Hsueh PR. (2020). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19): the epidemic and the challenges. Int J Antimicrob Agents, 55(3):105924.

  20. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. (2020). Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med, 26;382(13):1199-1207

  21. Lu H, Stratton CW, Tang Y. (2020). Outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China: the mystery and the miracle. J Med Virol, 92(4):401-402

  22. Mak WWS, Cheung F, Woo J, Lee D, Li P, Chan KS et al. (2009). A comparative study of the stigma associated with infectious diseases (SARS, AIDS, TB). Hong Kong Med J, 15:34–7

  23. McEachan R, Taylor N, Harrison R, Lawton R, Gardner P, Conner M. (2016). Meta-analysis of the reasoned action approach (RAA) to understanding health behaviors. Ann Behav Med, 50: 592e612

  24. Nachega JB, Morroni C, Zuniga JM, Sherer R, Beyrer C, Solomon S et al. (2012). HIV related stigma, isolation, discrimination, and sero status disclosure: a global survey of 2035 HIV-infected adults. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care, 11:172–8.

  25. Nkansah C, Serwaa D, Adarkwah LA, Osei-Boakye F, Mensah K, Tetteh P etal. (2020). Novel coronavirus disease 2019: knowledge, practice and preparedness: a survey of healthcare workers in the Offinso-North District, Ghana. Pan African Medical Journal, 35(2):79. [doi: 10.11604/pamj.supp.2020.35.2.23644]. Available online at:

  26. Nwoga HO, Ajuba MO, Ezeoke UE. (2020). COVID-19: Public Health Implications among Healthcare Workers in a Tertiary Health Facility in Enugu State, Nigeria. GJMR (F),20 (11):7-15

  27. Olapegba PO, Ayandele O, Kolawole SO, Oguntayo R, Gandi JC, Dangiwa AL etal. (2020).A preliminary assessment of novel coronavirus (COVID 19) Knowledge and perceptions in Nigeria. SSRN Electronoc Journal, doi:10.2139/ ssrn.3584408. [Accessed 23/9/2020]

  28. Olum R, Chekwech G, Wekha G, Nassozi DR, Bongomin F. (2020). Coronavirus Disease-2019: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Health Care Workers at Makerere University Teaching Hospitals, Uganda. Front. Public Health, 8:181.

  29. Olum R, Kajjimu J, Kanyike AM, Chekwech G, Wekha G, Nassozi DR ….. Bongomin F. Perspective of Medical Students on the COVID-19 Pandemic: Survey of Nine Medical Schools in Uganda. JMIR Public Health Surveill, 6(2):e19847 URL: doi: 10.2196/19847

  30. Person B, Sy F, Holton K, Govert B, Liang A. (2004). Fear and stigma: the epidemic within the SARS outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis, 10:358– 63.

  31. Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P, Bretzel G, Froeschl G, Wallrauch C et al. (2020). Transmission of 2019-nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany. N Engl J Med, 382(10):970-971

  32. Salman M, Mustafa ZU, Asif N, Zaidi HA, Hussain K, Shehzadi N et al. (2020). Knowledge, attitude and preventive practices related to COVID-19: a cross-sectional study in two Pakistani university populations. Drugs Ther Perspect, 09:1-7

  33. Saqlain M, Munir MM, Rehman SU. (2020). Knowledge, attitude, practice and perceived barriers among healthcare professionals regarding COVID-19: a Cross-sectional survey from Pakistan. J Hosp Infect, 105(3):419–423.

  34. Shimizu K. (2020). 2019-nCoV, fake news, and racism. Lancet, 395(10225):685-686. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30357-3

  35. Sim M. (2016). Psychological trauma of middle east respiratory syndrome victims and bereaved families. Epidemiol Health, 38:e2016054. doi: 10.4178/epih.e2016054

  36. Taghrir MH, Borazjani R, Shiraly R. (2020). COVID-19 and Iranian medical students; a survey on their related-knowledge, preventive behaviors and risk perception. Arch Iran Med, 01;23(4):249-254. doi: 10.34172/aim.2020.06

  37. Wang JH, Tan S, Raubenheimer K. (2020). Rethinking the role of senior medical students in the COVID-19 response. Med J Aust, 212(10):490-490.

  38. Wise T, Zbozinek T, Michelini G, Hagan C. (2020). Changes in risk perception and protective behavior during the first week of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Pre Print. PsyArXiv 2020 Mar 19. doi: 10.31234/

  39. World Health Organization. (2020). Emerging respiratory viruses, including COVID-19: methods for detection, prevention, response and control URL: [Accessed 28/05/2020]

  40. World Health Organization. (2020). Infection prevention and control (IPC) for novel coronavirus URL: courses/COVID-19-IPC-EN [Accessed 26/05/2020]

  41. World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland. (2020). WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19-11 March 2020 URL: [Accessed 5thMay 2020]

  42. Zhang M, Zhou M, Tang F, Wang Y, Nie H, Zhang L etal. (2020). Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding COVID-19 among healthcare workers in Henan, China. Journal of Hospital Infection, 105: 183e187

  43. Zhong BL, Luo W, Li HM. (2020). Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey. Int J Biol Sci, 16(10):1745–1752.

About Us

The Asian Institute of Research is an online and open-access platform to publish recent research and articles of scholars worldwide. Founded in 2018 and based in Indonesia, the Institute serves as a platform for academics, educators, scholars, and students from Asia and around the world, to connect with one another. The Institute disseminates research that is proven or predicted to be of significant influence for the general public.

Contact Us

Please send all inquiries to the email:

Business Address:

5th Floor, Kavling 507, Fajar Graha Pena Tower, Jl. Urip Sumohardjo No.20, Makassar, Indonesia 90234

Copyright © 2018 The Asian Institute of Research. All rights reserved

Stay Connected

  • Instagram - Black Circle
  • Facebook - Black Circle
  • LinkedIn - Black Circle