Journal of Health and Medical Sciences
Published: 24 June 2022
Mobile Phones as a Source of Nosocomial Infection in the Radiology Department of a Teaching Hospital
Joseph C. Eze, Julius A. Agbo, Daniel C. Ugwuanyi, Hyacienth U. Chiegwu, Dorathy Ezeagwuna, Chidera S. Nchey-Achukwu
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, University of Nigeria
Download Full-Text Pdf
Keywords: Mobile, Phone, Nosocomial, Infection, Radiographers, Radiology
Background: Mobile phones were first introduced in the United Kingdom and have become an important means of communication among doctors, other healthcare workers, patients and the general public. Objectives: This study was aimed at establishing that mobile phones are sources of nosocomial infections in the radiology department of our teaching hospital and also to determine the pathogens that are responsible for these infections. Methods: This was a prospective study that involved collection of swab samples from radiographers’ mobile phones. Three different samples were collected from each mobile phone. Thirty (30) mobile phones were used for this investigation and ninety (90) samples were totally collected. Samples were collected on arrival of the radiographer to the department, after handling patients and after washing hands. Samples collected were sent to the microbiology department for culture analysis. Descriptive data analysis was performed and results presented in frequency tables. Results: On arrival at the department, samples collected revealed that 22 (73.3%) of the phones were contaminated before commencing work for the day while 8 (26.7%) were not contaminated. With direct patient contact, 27 (93.3%) were contaminated and after washing hands it was observed that 16 (53.3%) of the mobile phones were contaminated. The major cause of contamination was staphylococcus aureus especially noted in swabs obtained after direct patient contact. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were also identified as contaminants of the phones. Conclusion: Radiographers’ mobile phones harbour bacteria and could act as a source of nosocomial infection in the radiology department.
Akinyemi KO, Atapu AD, Adetona OO, Coker AD. (2009). The potential role of mobile phones in the spread of bacterial infections. J Infect Dev Ctries.; 3: 628-32.
Allegranzi B, Pittet D. (2009). Role of hand hygiene in health care associated infection prevention. Journal of Hospital Infection: 73(4); 305-315.
Arora U, Devi P, Chadha A, Malhotra S. (2009). Cell phone: a modern stay house for bacteria pathogens. Journal of Medical Education and Research. 11(3): 127-130
Bhatt SS, Hedge SK, Salian S. (2011). Potential of mobile phones to serve as reservoir in the spread of nosocomial pathogens. Online Health Allied Scs. 10: 14 [Google Scholar]
Borkow G, Monk A. (2012). Fighting nosocomial infections with biocidal non- intrusive hard and software. World Journal of Clinical Infectious Disease. 2(4): 77-90.
Brady RR, Fraser SF, Dunlop MG, Paterson Brown S,Gib AP. (2007). Bacteria contamination of mobile communication devices in the operating environment. J. Hosp. Infection. 66: 397-398
Chawl K, Mukhopadhayay C, Gurung B, Bhate P, Bairy I. (2009). Bacterial “cell” phones: Do cell phones carry potential pathogens? Online Health Allied Scs. 8: 8. [Google Scholar]
Datta P, Rani H, Chander J, Gupta V. (2009).Bacterial contamination of mobile phones of health workers. Indian J Med Microbiol. 27: 279-81.
Eze J.C., Ekpo E.U., Nzotta ,C.C., Asogwa N.C., Egbe N. O. (2012). X-ray equipment and accessories as possible vectors of nosocomial bacteria in Anambra state .Journal of Association of Radiographers of Nigeria. 2: 18 – 27
Famurewa O, David OM. Cell phones: (2009). A medium of transmission of bacteria pathogens. Work Rural Observations. 1:69-72
Fares Almeshal, Feras Asiri, Anas Alyamani, Mohammed Altuwaijri, Sameera Aljehani Abdulhai Almuhana and Adel Alothman. (2017). bacterial contamination of healthcare workers’ mobile phones in a tertiary care center in saudi arabia: International Journal of Advanced Research. 15(1):1179-1188
Girma MM, Kelema A, Gemeda A. (2014). Bacteria contamination of mobile phones of health care workers in Jimma South West Ethiopia. Int J Infectious Control. 11(1); 1-8 [Google Scholar].
Hughes JM. (1998). Study on the efficacy of nosocomial infection control (SENIC project): Results and Implications for the future. Chemotherapy. 34: 553-61 [Pubmed] [Google Scholar].
Karabay O, Kocoglu E, Tahtaci M. (2009). The role of mobile phone in the spread of bacteria associated with nosocomial infection. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. 16(1):72-73
Nwankwo EO, Ekwunife N, Mofolorunsho KC. (2014). Nosocomial pathogens associated with the mobile phones of healthcare workers in a hospital in kogi state, Nigeria. 4:135-40
Nyasulu P, Murray J, Perovic O, Koomhof H. (2012). Antimicrobial resistance surveillance among nosocomial pathogens in South Africa: Systemic review of published literatures. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. 4(1):8e13.
Otter J, Yezli S, French G. (2011). The role played by contaminated surfaces in the transmission of nosocomial pathogens. Infect Control Hospital Epidemiology. 32(7): 687-699. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1086/660363
Palmore T, Henderson D, Bonten M, et al,. (2010). Enhancing patient safety by reducing health care associated infections; the role of discovery and dissemination. Infect control Hospital Epidemiology. 31 (2):118-123.http://dx.doc.org/110. 1086/650198
Razine R, Azzouzi A, Barkat A et al,. (2012). Prevalence of hospital acquired infections in the University medical centre of Rabat, Morocco. International Archives of Medicine. 5(26):1-8
Raghavendra M, shruthi k, shivalingah B. (2014). Bacteriological screening of hands and mobile phones of healthcare workers and management. Int J recent trends sci technol. 1:92-7
26.Sadat-Ali M, Al-Omran AK, Azam Q, et al. (2010). Bacterial flora on cell phones of health care providers in a teaching institution. Am J Infect Control. 38(5): 404-405
Schabrun S, Chip Chase L. (2006). Health care workers’ equipment as a source of nosocomial Infection: A systematic review. Journal of Hospital Infection. 63(1):223-245
Sepehri G, Talebizadah N, Mirzazadah A, Mir Shekari T, Sepehri E. (2009). Bacteria contamination and resistance to commonly used antimicrobials of healthcare workers’ mobile phones in teaching hospitals, Kerman, Iran. American Journal of Applied Sciences. 6(5): 806-810.
Sowah LN. (2008). The future of the mobile phone internet: How do we tap into the fullest benefits? Technology blogs. 1-2. [Google Scholar].
Tagoe D, Bardoo S, Dadbie I, Tengey D, Agbede C. (2011). Mobile phones: Potential sources of hospital acquired infections in the Volta region hospital in Ghana. Ghana Medical Journal.45(1):1-15.
Tamblekar DH, Gulhane PB, Dahikar SG, Dudane MN. (2008). Nosocomial hazards of doctors’ mobile phones in hospitals. J Med Sci. 73-76
Trivedi HR, Desai KJ ,Trivedi LP, malek .S.S, Javdekar TB. (2011). Role of mobile phones in spreading HAI: a study in different group og HCW, 2:61-6 nosocomial pathogens.Infection Control Hospital Epidemiology. 32(2):687-699
Ulger F, Esen S, Dilek A, Yanik K, Gunaydin M, Leblabicioglu. (2009). Are we aware how contaminated our mobile phones with nosocomial pathogens? Ann Clin Microbiol Antini Crob. 8: 7. [PMC free article] [Pubmed] [Google Scholar]
Vaibhavi S, Rohit S, Pipliya S, Sudhir KJ. (2015). Contamination of mobile phones of health care workers in a Tertiary Hospital. Indian Journal of Applied Research. 5(8)
WHO (2002). Prevention of Hospital acquired Infections: A practical guide. 2nd Ed. World Health Organization Department of Communicable Disease, Surveillance and Response. WHO/CDS/CSR/EPH. 2002; 12:1-7