Journal of Health and Medical Sciences

ISSN 2622-7258

Published: 09 December 2018

Oral Motor Difficulties and Speech Intelligibility in Bangla Speaking Children with Down syndrome

Mohammad Kamrujjaman

State College of Health Sciences, Bangladesh

pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Background: Many children with Down syndrome have low intelligibility due to oral motor problems and some related factors. Purposes: The present study was conducted to find out the oral motor difficulties and speech intelligibility in Bengali speaking children with Down syndrome. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out by a structured parental questionnaire with an Intelligibility Context Scale (ICS). Among 82 children with DS comprising 42 boys and 40 girls took part in this study. Results: The Maximum (41.5%) age range was 9-13 years old (41.5%) where a greater percentage (82.9%) of children with DS had delayed speech and most of them developed one word at 3 years old. The majority (40.7%) of the DS was reported with large or big tongue. Results also indicated that a high percentage of the children with DS had not a good oral motor movement. However, there were significant relationship (P=.019<0.05, .010<0.05, .003<0.05) between oral motor difficulties with lip, tongue, and jaw movement, but there was not a significant relationship between gender and intelligibility scale. Highly significant relationship (P= 0.000<0.05) was found between oral motor difficulties and speech intelligibility and positive co-relation (P= 0.040<0.05) initiated between age and speech intelligibility score. Conclusion: A high prevalence (72%) of oral motor difficulties was found in Bangla speaking children with DS & oral motor control, speech delay and oral cavity structure were the responsible factors to interrupt speech intelligibility.


  1. Albertini, G., Bonassi, S., Dall, Armi, K., Giachetti, I., Giaquinto,  S., Mignano, M. (2010). Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31(5), 995-1001.

  2. Alcock, K. (2009): The development of oral motor control & Language. Down syndrome Research & Practice, 11(1), 1-8.

  3. Afrin, S. (2015). Phonological process of 4-5 years old typically developing Bangla speaking children: BHPI Journal.Retrieved from 8080/xmlui/

  4. American Speech-Language –Hearing Association (2007). Childhood apraxia of speech. Tech.rep. Retrieved from 2007-00278.htw≠ sec1.1.2

  5. Barnes, E. F., Roberts, J., and Mirrett, P.  (2006). A Comparison of oral structure & oral- motor function in young males with Fragile X syndrome & down syndrome. Journal of speech, language & Hearing Research, 49, 903-917.

  6. Berglund, E., Eriksson M., and Johansson I. (2001). Parents Reports of spoken language skills in children with Down syndrome. Journal of speech, language and hearing research, 44, 19-191.

  7. Buckley, S., and Bird, G. (2002). Speech and Language development for teenegers with Down syndrome (11-16 years). Downs ED, 2 (2), 70-76.

  8. Buckley, (2000). Speech and Language Development for individual with Down syndrome. Down ED, 2 (2), 70-76.

  9. Cupples, L., & Lacono, T. (2000). Phonological awareness & oral reading skill in children with down syndrome. Journal of speech language & Hearing Research, 43, 595-608.

  10. Dodd, B., and Thompson, L. (2001). Speech disorder in children with Down’s syndrome. Jounal of Intellectual Disabilities Research, 45(4), 308-316.

  11. Fawcett, S., and Peralego, J. (2009). Speech in individuals with own syndrome. Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, 16, 109-116

  12. Kent, R. D., and Vorperian, H.K. (2012). Speech Impairment in Down syndrome: A Review article. Journal of speech, Language and Hearing Research, 56, 178-210.

  13. Kent, R.D., Miolo G., and Bloedel S. (1994). The Intelligibility of Children’s speech. American Journal of Speech and Language Pathology, 3, 81-95.

  14. Knight, R. A., Kurtz, S., and Georgiadoui (2015). Speech production in children with Down syndrome: the effects of reading, naming and imitation, Clin. Linguist Phon, 29 (8-10).

  15. Kumin, L. (2015).  Resource Guide to oral motor skill difficulties in children with down syndrome. Loyal College of Meriland,

  16. Retrieved from

  17. Kumin, L. (2001). Speech intelligibility in individuals with Down syndrome: a framework for targeting specific factors for assessment and treatment. Down Syndrome Quarterly, 6(3) 1–8.

  18. Kumin, L. (1994). Communication skills in children with Down syndrome; a guide for parents. Retrieved

  19. Kumin, L. and Balsr, D.C (1999). Patterns of feeding, eating and drinking in young children with Down syndrome with oral motor concerns. Down syndrome Quarterly, 4, 1-8.

  20. Kumin, L. (2007). Childhood Apraxia of speech. Down syndrome news, 30, 3.

  21. Kumin, L. (2006). Speech intelligibility & Childhood verbal apraxia in children with Down Syndrome. Down syndrome Research & Practice, 10(1), 10-22.

  22. Kumin, L. (1994). Intlligibility of speech in children with down syndrome in Natural settings: Parents perspective, SAGE Journals, 78 (1).

  23. Martin, G. E., Klusek J., and Estigarribia (2009). Language characteristics of individuals with Down Syndrome,  Top Lang. Disord. 29 (2), 112-132.

  24. McLeod, S.,  Harrison, L. J., and McCormack J. (2012). Administration of the Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS). Intelligibility in Context Scale. Retrieved from

  25. speech.

  26. NEMA (2002). Speech Intelligibility. Retrieved from

  27. Roberts, J.E., Price, J., and Malkin, C. (2007). Language and Communication development in Down syndrome. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 13(1), 26-35.

  28. Pascoe, M. (2017). Speech Intelligibility. Apraxia Kids. Retrieved from

  29. Rupela, V., Velleman, S. L., Andrianopoulos, M. V. (2016). Motor speech skills in children with down syndrome: A descriptive study. International Journal of speech language pathology, 18 (5), 483-492.   

  30. Rondal, J. A. (2009). Spoken language in person with Down syndrome.  International journal of Early Childhood Special Education, 1(2), 139.

  31. Smith, B. L., and Stoel- Gammon (199). A quantative analysis of reduplicated and variegated babbling in vocalizations by Down syndrome infants. Clinical Linguistic and Phonetics, 10(2), 119-129.

  32. Timmins, C., Cleland, J., Rodjer, R., Wishart, J., Wood, S., Hardcastle, W. (2009). Speech production in Down syndrome. Down syndrome Quarterly, 11, 2.

  33. Togram, B. (2015). How do families of children with Down syndrome perceive speech Intelligibility in Turkey. BioMed Research Internationa, 19 (2), 233-241.

  34. Universal Periodic Review of Bangladesh (April, 2013). Human Rights Forum, Bangladesh. Retrieved from

  35. Valizadeh, A., Fatehi, F., Yavari, A., Dalvand, H., Molali, N., Faraji, F., Bayat, B. (2015). Speech Intelligibility in Persian Children with Down syndrome. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal, 13(4), 80-84.

  36. Wild, A., Vorperian, H.K., Kent, R.D., Bolt, D.M., Austin, D. (2018). Single word speech intelligibility in children and Adults with Down syndrome. American Journal of Speech and Language Pathology, 27(1), 222-236.

  37. Yoder, P.J., Hooshyar, N., Klee, T., Schaffer, M. (1996). Comparison of the types of child utterences mothers expand in children with language delays and with Down’s syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 40, 557-567.

  38. Yorkston, K.M., Strand, E.A., and Kenmedy, M.R.K. (1996). Comprehensibility of dysarthric speech: implications for assessment and treatment planning. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 5(1), 55-65.

About Us

The Asian Institute of Research is an online and open-access platform to publish recent research and articles of scholars worldwide. Founded in 2018 and based in Indonesia, the Institute serves as a platform for academics, educators, scholars, and students from Asia and around the world, to connect with one another. The Institute disseminates research that is proven or predicted to be of significant influence for the general public.

Stay Connected

  • Instagram - Black Circle
  • Facebook - Black Circle
  • LinkedIn - Black Circle

Contact Us

Please send all inquiries to the email:

Business Address:

5th Floor, Kavling 507, Fajar Graha Pena Tower, Jl. Urip Sumohardjo No.20, Makassar, Indonesia 90234

Copyright © 2018 The Asian Institute of Research. All rights reserved