Journal of Health and Medical Sciences
Published: 15 October 2021
Perioperative Anesthetic Management in Preterm 12 Days Infants with Giant Meningoencephalocele at Mid Occipital and Secondary Trigonocephaly
Kirby Saputra, Radian Ahmad Halimi
Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia
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Keywords: Airway, Infants, Intracranial Pressure, Meningoenchepalocele, Perioperative Management
Introduction: A meningoencephalocele is herniation of neural element along with meninges through a congenital defect in cranium. The incidence of encephalocele is approximately 1/5000 live births; occipital encephalocele is more common in females than males. It is called as giant meningoencephalocele when the head is smaller than the meningoencephalocele. These giant meningoencephaloceles harbor a large amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissue, so there occur various surgical challenges and anesthetic challenges in positioning and intubation. Case: A 12 days neonate was consulted to the neurosurgery department with complaints of large swelling over the back of head and difficulty in feeding. She was diagnosed with ventriculomegaly and meningoencephalocele since 32-33 pregnancy. The swelling was small at the time of birth, but it gradually increased in size. The child was born by section caesarean because of fetal distress and meningoenchepalocele. The neonate current weight was 3.195 grams with Post Conceptional Age (PCA) 35-36 weeks. On examination, the patient large spherical swelling was present over occipital region and there was no head control. The patient was active, conscious with no impression of focal neurological deficit. Systemic examination was unremarkable. The head circumference was 30 cm and circumference of occipital swelling was 40 cm. Potential problems in this patient include preoperative preparation and optimization of general condition, difficulty in positioning the patient, difficult airway (intubation), periodic apnea and potential hemodynamic disturbances and a sudden decrease in intracranial pressure during cele resection. Conclusion: Perioperative management in this case started from preoperative to postoperative evaluation. Preoperative preparation in anticipation of airway difficulties and communication with the operator is very important. Appropriate anesthetic techniques should aim to maintain stable hemodynamics and oxygenation and prevent a sudden increase or decrease in intracranial pressure.
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