top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Journal of Health and Medical Sciences

ISSN 2622-7258

Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.24.09 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.24.02 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.23.57 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.23.52 AM.png
open access

Published: 12 September 2022

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Malaria among Pregnant Women receiving Antenatal Care in a Health Facility in Delta State, Southern Nigeria

Kelechi CN, Omuemu VO

University of Benin (Nigeria), University of Benin Teaching Hospital (Nigeria)

journal of social and political sciences
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 241-253

Keywords: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Malaria, Pregnant Women, Antenatal Care, WHO, Delta State, Nigeria


Background: Malaria is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries including Nigeria. Malaria in pregnancy is estimated to cause about 15% of maternal deaths globally, accounting for over 10,000 maternal and 200,000 neonatal deaths annually. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors of malaria infection among pregnant women receiving antenatal care in a health facility in Delta State. Methods: This was a facility-based cross-sectional study carried out among 418 pregnant women who were selected by systematic sampling technique. Clinical malaria was confirmed using microscopy method (Giemsa staining technique) while a pre-tested, structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information on soscio-demographic characteristics and obstetrics history of the respondents. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 and the level of statistical significance was set at p< 0.05. Results: The mean age of the participants was 29.9 ± 5.7 years. Two hundred and sixty three (62.9%) pregnant women tested positive for malaria. Respondents who were pregnant for the second time (AOR = 0.521, 95% CI: 0.28 – 0.99, p = 0.045) and those from a family size of 1-6 (AOR = 2.123, 95% CI: 1.12 – 4.04, p = 0.022) were more likely to test positive to malaria parasite. Conclusion: In this study, the prevalence of malaria in pregnant women was high and the significant predictors were; family size of 1–6, skill level 1, first trimester and multigravidae. The Delta State Ministry of Health should ensure increasing access to IPT, ITNs/LLIN and health education on malaria in all hospitals rendering ANC services.


  1. Abdalla, E. A. M., Abdalla, L. A. M., & Eltayeb, W. A. H. (2017). Prevalence and possible risk factors of malaria among pregnant women attending to antenatal care at Umtalha Health Centre in Gezira State Sudan. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 12(3), 67-72. DOI:10.9790/3008-1203056772

  2. Adebayo, A. M., Akinyemi, O. O., & Cadimus, E. O. (2015). Knowledge of Malaria Prevention among Pregnant Women and Female Caregivers of Under-five Children in Rural South-West Nigeria. A Peer Reviewed Open Access Journal, 792(3), 1-13.

  3. Africa Health Organization (AHO). (2020). Malaria Fact Sheet. [Accessed on 12/04/2022]. Available at:,cases%20and%2075%25%20deaths%20globally

  4. Agomo, C. O., & Oyibo, W. O. (2013). Factors associated with risk of malaria infection among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria. Open Access Biomedical Central Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2(19), 1-8.

  5. Bawa, J. A., Auta, T., & Liadi, S. (2014). Prevalence of Malaria: Knowledge, Attitude and Cultural Practices of Pregnant Women in Katsina Metropolis, Nigeria. European Scientific Journal, 10(21), 1857-7881. DOI:10.13140/RG.2.2.31856.00003.

  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2015). Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria for Pregnant Women (IPTp): Why Pregnant Women Are Especially at Risk. [Accessed on 1/08/2017]. Available at:

  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020). Malaria. About Malaria: Where Malaria Occur. [Accessed on 12/04/2022]. Available at: 

  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2021). About Malaria: Malaria’s Impact Worldwide. [Accessed on 12/04/2022] Available at: 

  9. Central Hospital Warri. (2017). [Accessed on 1/09/2017]. Available at:

  10. Chaponda, E. B., Chandramohan, D., Michelo, C., Mharakurwa, S., Chipeta, J., & Chico, M. (2015). High burden of malaria infection in pregnant women in a rural district of Zambia: a cross-sectional study. Malaria Journal, 14(380), 1-12. DOI 10.1186/s12936-015-0866-1

  11. Chotivanich, K., Silamut, K., & Day, N. P. J. (2007). Laboratory diagnosis of malaria infection – A short review of methods. New Zealand Journal of Medical Laboratory Science, 61(1): 4-7. Corpus ID: 75532110.

  12. Chukwuocha, U. M., Dozie, I. N., & Chukwuocha, A. N. (2012). Malaria and its Burden among Pregnant Women in Parts of the Niger Delta area of Nigeria.