top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Journal of Health and Medical Sciences

ISSN 2622-7258

Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.24.09 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.24.02 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.23.57 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.23.52 AM.png
open access

Published: 27 March 2020

Tracing Symptoms of Psychological Health Status Among Construction Employees

Genevieve Ataa Fordjour, Albert P. C. Chan

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

journal of social and political sciences
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 104-118

Keywords: Psychological Health, Psychological Symptoms, Construction Industry, Construction Workers, Ghana


Psychological health condition is known to be complex and multidimensional, with several scales developed as measures of its symptoms. The absence or presence of negative symptoms has been used to describe the state of psychological well-being and psychological ill-being, respectively. This study gathered 48 validated items from previous studies as symptoms of psychological health conditions. The 48 symptoms identified were explored among 300 construction employees in Ghana to determine their psychological health status. Thematic analysis was used to group the 48 symptoms into four main constructs, namely: physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, cognitive symptoms, and behavioral symptoms. A comparative analysis was conducted with the two groups of respondents, namely construction professionals and construction trade workers, to identify the group that is more prevalent with psychological well-being or ill-being conditions. The findings revealed that a significant number of the respondents had experienced the negative symptoms of psychological health conditions. The study also revealed statistically significant differences in the level of experience of psychological health conditions among the two construction employees, with psychological ill-being conditions found to be more prevalent in construction trade workers than the construction professionals. The findings from the study confirm the need to develop preventive psychological health management models for construction employees. The 48 symptoms put together as a measure for psychological health status had an acceptable internal consistency and reliability, and hence can be adopted by researchers and stakeholders to determine psychological health status. This study, therefore, makes an impactful contribution to the field of occupational health psychology.


  1. Ademola, A. (2005). “Performance under stress: What the coaches should do”. A paper delivered at the seminar on mental skill training in sport organized by National Institute for Sport, Lagos.
  2. Bakker, A. B. and Bal, M. P. (2010). “Weekly work engagement and performance: A study among starting teachers”. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83 (1), 189 - 206.
  3. Bakker, A. B. and Xanthopoulou, D. (2009). “The crossover of daily work engagement: Test of an actor-partner interdependence model”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 1562 - 1571.
  4. Bono, J. E., Folds, H. J., Vinson, G. and Muros, J. P. (2007). “Workplace emotions: The role of supervision and leadership”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92 (5), 1357-1367.
  5. Bowen, P., Edwards, P., Lingard, H. and Cattell, K. (2014). “Workplace stress, stress effects, and coping mechanisms in the construction industry”. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 140 (3), 1 – 24.
  6. Chan, I. Y. S., Leung, M. Y. and Liu, A. M. M. (2016). “Occupational health management  system: A study of expatriate construction professionals”. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 93, 280 – 290.
  7. Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D. E. and Byrne, Z. S. (2003). “The relationship of emotional exhaustion to  work attitudes, job performance and organizational citizenship behaviors”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (1), 160-169.
  8. Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F. and Schaufeli, W. B. (2001), “The job demands‐ resources model of burnout”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86 (3), 499‐512.
  9. Di-Martino, V. (2003). “Relationship between work stress and workplace violence in the health sector”. International Labour Office, International Council of Nurses, World Health  Organization,Geneva.
  10. Dragano, N., Verde P. E. and Siegrist J. (2005). “Organisational downsizing and work stress:  testing  synergistic health effects in employed men and women”. J Epidemiol Community Health, 59 (8), 694-699.
  11. Dzirasah, K. (2005). “Let us Escape Stress Related Problems”. Ghana newspaper agency.
  12. Enshassi, A., Al. Swaity, E. and Arain, F. (2016). “Investigating common causes of burnout in the construction industry”, International Journal of Construction Project Management, 8 (1), 43 – 56.
  13. Faghihi A. and Allameh S. M. (2012). “Investigating the Influence of Employee Attitude toward Change and Leadership Style on Change Readiness by SEM (Case Study: Isfahan Municipality)”. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 2 (11), 1-13.
  14. Fordjour, G. A. and Chan, A. P. C. (2020a). “Exploring the effects of occupational psychological disorders on construction employees and the construction industry”. Occupational diseases and environmental medicine, 8 (1), 1-25.
  15. Fordjour, G. A., Chan, A. P. C., and Fordjour, A. A. (2020b). “Exploring potential predictors of psychological distress among employees: a systematic review”. International Journal of Psychiatry Research, 3(1), 1-11.
  16. Fordjour, G. A. and Chan, A. P. C. (2019a). “Exploring occupational psychological health indicators among construction employees: A study in Ghana”. Journal of Mental Health and Clinical Psychology, 3(2), 6-18.
  17. Fordjour, G. A., Chan, A. P. C. and Amoah, P. (2019b). “Exploring the need for occupational psychological health management and interventions in the construction industry: An empirical study in Ghana”. The International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB) World Building Congress 2019– Constructing Smart Cities.
  18. Fordjour, G. A., Chan, A.P.C., Amoah, P. and Tuffour-Kwarteng, L. (2019c). “Coping Strategies Adopted by Construction Employees to Deal with the Causes and Effects of Occupational Psychological Disorders: A Study in Ghana”. Health, 11, 755-782.
  19. Fordjour, G. A., Chan, A. P. C. and Amoah, P. (2019d). “Exploring Personal Factors That Might Influence the Vulnerability of Construction Employees to Occupational Psychological Disorders”. Health, 11, 546-566.
  20. Gakovic, A. and Tetrick, L. E. (2003).