top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Journal of Health and Medical Sciences

ISSN 2622-7258

Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.24.09 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.24.02 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.23.57 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.23.52 AM.png
open access

Published: 27 August 2019

The Prevalence and the Common Types of Cyanotic Congenital Heart Diseases in Albaha, Saudi Arabia

Abdulmajid Mustafa Almawazini, Abdulrahman Matar Abdullah Alzahrani, Zaher Hassan Saadi, Hazem Abdulmajid Almawazini, Mohammad Abdulmajid Almawazini, Saeed Daifalla Zahrani, Saud Hussien Alsaadi, Mohammed Abdulla Eidoh, Abdulrahman Mohammed Alghamdi, Ahmed Mohammed Al Antar

King Fahad Hospital Albaha, Cairo University, Al Ahliyya Amman University

journal of social and political sciences
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 332-336

Keywords: Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease, Prevalence, and Presentation


Background: Cyanotic congenital heart disease accounts about one-third of all congenital heart disease, and the prevalence of it vary from center to another due to related factors. Objectives: The study aimed to provide the prevalence and the most common types and distribution of CCHD in children less than 14 years of age in Albaha area Saudi Arabia. Methods: Hospital-based retrospective observational cross-sectional study involved all cases of Cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) diagnosed at the King Fahad Hospital Albaha, Saudi Arabia, between January 2006 and January 2019. All patients were screened by echocardiography to confirm the diagnosis. Results: Total of 314 patients were diagnosed as cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) in our center. There were 158 males (50.32%) and 156 females (49.68%). The age of patients was from 1 day to 14 years with a mean of 35.42±4.1 months. The neonatal period was the modal age at diagnosis. Approximately 80% of the children had been diagnosed at the age of < 1 yr and 20% of cases diagnosed after that. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) was the most common CCHD; it was diagnosed in 125 pts 39.81%. Double Outlet Right Ventricle (DORV) diagnosed in 48 pts 15.29%. Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA) diagnosed in 34 pts 10.82. Pulmonary atresia 20 pts, 6.37%., Truncus arteriosus 20 pts, 6.37%., and Hypoplastic Left Ventricle Syndrome 20 pts, 6.37%. The other cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) was 13.16%. Cyanosis was the common clinical presentation in all patients. Conclusions: The prevalence of cyanotic congenital heart disease in Albaha area was 14.62% of all congenital cardiac abnormalities, and no significant difference between male and female patients was seen. The most common types were TOF. Cyanosis was the most common clinical presentation. The outcome can be improved by early diagnosis. CCHD screening program associated with physical examination can help in early diagnosis.


  1. Allen HD, Driscoll DJ, Shaddy RE, et al. Moss and Adams' heart disease in infants, children, and Adolescents. Including the fetusand young adults. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2013.

  2. A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Data Standards 2017. Jeffrey R. Boris, Marie J. Béland Lisa J.  Bergensen, Steven D. Colan, Joanna Dangel, Curtis J. Daniels, Christopher Davis, Allen D. Everett, Rodney Franklin, J. William Gaynor, Darryl T. Gray. Originally published14 Jul,2017, AHA/ACC Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. 2017, vol. 10, No.8.

  3. Hoffman JI, Kaplan S. The incidence of congenital heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:1890-900. 10.1016/S0735-1097(02)01886-7.

  4. Kennedy N, Miller P. Spectrum of paediatric cardiac disease presenting to an outpatient clinic in Malawi. BMC Res Notes 2013;6:53. 10.1186/1756-0500-6-53 [PMC free article].

  5. Van der Linde D, Konings EE, Slager MA, et al. Birth prevalence of congenital heart disease worldwide: a systemic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;58:2241-7. 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.08.025.

  6. O’Brien P, Marshall AC. Cardiology patient page. Tetralogy of Fallot. Circulation 2014;130:e26-9. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.005547.

  7. Animasahun BA, Madise-Wobo AD, Gbelee HO, et al. Children with transposition of the great arteries: Should they actually be born in Nigeria? World J Cardiol 2017;9:277-82. 10.4330/wjc.v9.i3.277 [PMC free article].

  8. Okoromah CAEkure ENLesi FEOkunowo WOTijani BOOkeiyi JC. Prevalence, profile, and predictors of malnutrition in children with congenital heart defects: a case-control observational study. Arch Dis Child. 2011 Apr;96(4):354-60. doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.176644. Epub 2011 Jan 24.

  9. Gorini F, Chiappa E, Gargani L, et al. Potential effects of environmental chemical contamination in congenital heart disease. Pediatr Cardiol 2014;35:559-68. 10.1007/s00246-014-0870-1 [PubMed].

  10. Campbell M. Place of maternal rubella in the aetiology of congenital heart disease. Br Med J 1961;1:691-6. 10.1136/bmj.1.5227.691.

  11. Shawky RM, Elsayed SM, Zaki ME, et al. Consanguinity and its relevant to clinical genetics. Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics 2013;14:157-64. 10.1016/j.ejmhg.2013.01.002.

  12. Radu S, Floria M, Baroi GL, et al. Heart Team in cardiovascular disease – between utility and limits.Rom J Cardiol 2016;26:440-9.

  13. Alabdulgader AA. Congenital heart disease in Saudi Arabia: current epidemiology and future projections. East Mediterr helth J 2006;12 Suppl 2:S157-67.

  14. Abdulmajid M. Almawazini, MD, PhD, Hamdi K. Hanafi, SSCP, CABP, Hasan A. Madkhali, MBBS, Noura B. Majrashi, MBBS. Effectiveness of the critical congenital heart disease screening program for early diagnosis of cardiac abnormalities in newborn infants. Saudi Med J 2017; Vol. 38 (10).

  15. Movahedian AHMosayebi ZSagheb S. Evaluation of Pulse Oximetry in the Early Detection of Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease in Newborns.  J Tehran Heart Cent. 2016 Apr 13;11(2):73-78.

  16. Chew C, Halliday JL, Riley MM. Population based study of antenatal detection of congenital heart disease by ultrasound examination. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007;29:619-24. 10.1002/uog.4023.

  17. Hoffman JIe. The global burden of congenital heart disease. Cardiovasc J Afr 2013;24:141-5. 10.5830/CVJA-2013-028.

  18. Sadoh WE, Uzodimma CC, Daniels Q. Congenital Heart Disease in Nigerian Children. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2013;4:172-6. 10.1177/2150135112474026.

bottom of page