Journal of Social and Political


ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)

ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)

Published: 19 November 2019

Between Values and Power; Ideological Orientation of Santri-Based Parties in Indonesia

Abdul Chalik, Achmad Room Fitrianto, Ma’shum

State Islamic University Sunan Ampel Surabaya, Indonesia

pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf


Pages: 926-936

Keywords: santri-based parties, values, power, pragmatism, ideological orientation


Political parties in Indonesia have evolved from time to time, including santri-based political parties. The management board changes, constituent demands, and the impact of power relation are the factors that influence the political parties' changes. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between values and power in the santri-based parties, in relation with the consistency of the parties and the politicians in a struggle for supporting ideology practices. The methods of this study are literature review and participant observation by using content analysis, discourse analysis and self-reflective. The findings indicate that the santri-based parties face a dilemma and burden in practicing Islamic values when they had been elected for house representative or executive position. As a result, the elected politicians often act pragmatically beyond the platform of the party. This study classifies the santri-based parties into two groups: out-of-the-law party and disorientation party. The former means that the party neglecting and not comply with the principles, values, and norm that stated in the party constitution in obtaining power. PKB, PAN and PKS are examples. While the latter means the party actions and program has developed beyond the party goals and constitution. PPP is an example. The major cause is the internal vulnerable condition the party encountering that triggered by conflict in gaining mass basis support. Furthermore, the Islamic parties also experience external competition with nationalist religious party in gaining votes. However, even though the Islamic parties have internal and external challenges, santri-based parties remain acknowledged as a significant political force. This is because the Islamic party has significant and real social support from Muslim voters and strong bargaining power in the political arena in Indonesia.


  1. Ayoob, M. (1998). The Politics of Islamic Reassertion. London:Croom Helm, 1988.
  2. Assaukanie, L. (2004). Democracy and The Islamic State:Muslim argument for political change in Indonesia. The Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies, 20, 32-46.
  3. al-Sa‘idî, H. A. M. (1997). Nazarîyat al-Islâmîyah fî al-Daulah. Cairo:Dâr al-Nahdat al-‘Arabîyah.
  4. Abdullah, T. (2011). Islam, State and Society in Democratizing Indonesia:An Historical Reflection. Studia Islamica, 18 (2), 62-89.
  5. Ambardi, K. (2009). Mengungkap Politik Kartel. Studi tentang Sistem Kepartaian di Indonesia. Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia-LSI.
  6. Aminudin, M. F, Masykuri, R. (2015). Genealogi dan transformasi ideologi partai berbasis slam pasca Orde Baru. Islamica,Volume 10 (1), 26-55.
  7. Baswedan, A. (2004). Political Islam Indonesia, Present and Future Trajector. Asian Survey, 44 (5), 669-690.
  8. Amir, Z. A. (2003). Peta Islam Politik Pasca Soeharto. Jakarta:LP3ES.
  9. Baocek, F. (2005). Rethingking Factionalism;Typologies, Intra-Party Dynamics and Three Faces. Party Politics, 15, 455-486. at, (acsessed January 16th 2018)
  10. Bettcher, K. E. (2005). Factions of Interest in Japan and Italy;The Organizational and Motivational Dimensions of Factionalism. Party Politics, 11, 339-358. at (acsessed January 17th 2018)
  11. Bruinessen, M. V. Genealogies of Islamic Radicalism in Post-Suharto Indonesia. South East Asia Researh, 10 (2).
  12. Bruinessen, M. V. (1994). NU: Tradisi, Relasi-relasi Kuasa Pencarian Wacana Baru. Jogjakarta:LkiS.
  13. Carnegie, P. J.n(2008). Political Islam and Democratic Change in Indonesia. Asian Sosial Science, 4 ( 11), 1-15.
  14. Crone, P, Hinds, M. (1990). God’s Caliph. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  15. Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design Chosing Among Fives Approaches. London:SAGE.
  16. Coleman, J. S. (1992). Rational choice theory, in Edgar F. Borgotta (ed.), Encyclopedia of Sociology, Volume III. New York:Mcmillan Publishing Company, 1620-1673.
  17. Cohen, S. C. (1969). Modern Social Theory. London:Heinemann Educational Books Ltd.
  18. Evans,K. R. (2003). The History of Political Parties and General Elections in Indonesia. Jakarta: Arise Consultancies.
  19. Effendy, B. (1998). Islam dan Negara: Tansformasi Pemikiran dan Praktik Politik Islam di Indonesia. Jakarta:Paramadina.
  20. Feith, H, Castles, L. (1970). Indonesian Political Thinking 1945-1965. Ithaca and London: Cornell University.
  21. Glynos, J. et. al. (2009). Discource Analysis:Varities, and Methods, in ESRC National Centre for Research Methods. At (acsessed  December 12th 2017)
  22. Gjorshoski, N. (2015). Doctrinal and ideological paradigm of conservatism in Western European Countries. Journal of Liberty and International Affairs, 1 (1), 1-18.
  23. Heywood, A. (2004).  Political Theory An Introduction, Third Edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
  24. Hamayotsu, K. (2011). The End of Political Islam? A Comparative Analisys of Religion Parties in The Muslim Democracy of Indonesia. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 3, 133-159.
  25. Higgins, PC Jhonson JM. (1998). Personal Sociology. IJR 17 (4), 672-673.
  26. Haris, S, Ratnawati, T. (2008). Political Parties in Indonesia from the 1950s to 2004: An Overview. Working Paper, 61.
  27. Haidar, A. (1994). Nahdlatul Ulama dan Islam Indonesia Pendekatan Fikih dalam Politik.Jakarta:Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
  28. Hilmy, M. (2011). Akar-akar Transnasionalisme Islam Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI). Islamica,6 (1), 1-13.
  29. Khaldūn, I. (1993). Muqaddimah. Beirut:Dār al-Kutub al-’Alamiah.
  30. Ricklefs, M.C. (2013). Mengislamkan Jawa Sejarah Islamisasi di Jawa dan Penentangnya dari 1930 sampai sekarang, ter. FX. Dono S dan Wahono. Jakarta:Serambi.
  31. Mujani, S, Liddle, W. (2010). Voters and the New Indonesian Democracy, in Aspi­nall, Edward dan Mietzner, Marcus. Problems of Democratisation in Indonesia. Singapore: ISEAS.
  32. Mujani, Saiful, dkk. Kuasa Rakyat Analisis tentang Prilaku Memilih dalam Pemilihan Legislatif dan Pilpres Pasca Orde Baru. Bandung:Mizan, 2012
  33. Mulyani, S. (1997). The Theory of State of al-Mawardi in Islam and Development. Montreal:Permika & LPMI.
  34. Mahadi, H. (2011). Pragmatisme Politik: Studi Kasus Proses Rekrutmen Politik PDIP Pada Pilkada, Kabupaten Sleman. Jurnal Studi Pemerintahan, 2 (1), 1-39.
  35. Makhasin, L. (2006). Orientasi Ideologi dan Pragmatisme Politik Model Pembentukan Koalisi dalam Pilkada Serentak di Jawa Tengah 2015. Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, 19 (3), 234-250.
  36. Marying, P. (2000). Qualitative Content Analysis”, in Forum:Qualitative Social Research Sozilforschung, 1 (2) at (acsessed Desember 12th 2017)
  37. Nurhasim, M. (2016). Masa Depan Partai Islam di Indonesia;Studi Tentang Volatilitas Elektoral dan Faktor-Faktor Penyebabnya. Yogyakarta:Pustaka Pelajar dan LIPI.
  38. Noer, D. (1998). Islam dan Politik: Mayoritas atau Minoritas. Prisma, 5 (XVII).
  39. Ridā, M. R. (1341 H). al-Khilāfah wa al-Imāmah al-‘Uzmā. Cairo:Matba’at al-Manār.
  40. Romli, L. (2014). Crescent and Electoral Strength: Islamic Party Portrait of Reform Era In Indonesia. International Journal of Islamic Thought, 4, 1-14.
  41. Syarif, Z. (2013). Masa Depan Politik Islam.  Millah, XII (3), 73-89.
  42. Storm, K. (1990). A behavior theory of competetitive political parties.  American Journal of Political Science, 34 (2), 565-598.
  43. Springer, D. R. (2009). Islamic Radicalism and Global Jihad. George Town University Press:Washington DC.
  44. Yunanto, S, Hamid, A.F.A. (2013). Fragmentations and Conflict Among Islamic Political Parties in Indonesia during Reformasi Era (1998-2009): Anatomy, Factors and Implications. Journal of Indonesia Islam, 07 (02), 337-365.
  45. Machmudi, Y. (2008). The Emergence of New Santri in Indonesia”. Journal of Indonesia Islam, 02 (01), 69-10.
  46. Umam, A. K., Junaidi, A.A. (2017). Political Islam: The shrinking trend and the future trajectory of Islamic political parties in Indonesia. Jurnal Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik,  30 (1), 1-12.
  47. Woodward, K. E. (2015). Indonesian Schools: Shaping the Future of Islam and Democracy in a Democratic Muslim Country. Journal of International Education and Leadership, 5 (1), 1-21.
  48. Wanto, A. (2012). The Paradox Between Political Islam and Islamic Political Parties;The Case of West Sumatera Province. al-Jamiah 50 (2), 329-368

About Us

The Asian Institute of Research is an online and open-access platform to publish recent research and articles of scholars worldwide. Founded in 2018 and based in Indonesia, the Institute serves as a platform for academics, educators, scholars, and students from Asia and around the world, to connect with one another. The Institute disseminates research that is proven or predicted to be of significant influence for the general public.

Stay Connected

  • Instagram - Black Circle
  • Facebook - Black Circle
  • LinkedIn - Black Circle

Contact Us

Please send all inquiries to the email:

Business Address:

5th Floor, Kavling 507, Fajar Graha Pena Tower, Jl. Urip Sumohardjo No.20, Makassar, Indonesia 90234

Copyright © 2018 The Asian Institute of Research. All rights reserved