Keywords: India, China, Afghanistan, Geopolitics, Afghan Peace Process
At the time the traditional and non-traditional security issues in South Asian and regional dynamics mounting into a complex geopolitical space, India and China are gearing up their regional political and economic outlook somewhat country-specific. For India and China, Afghanistan has been a grey area. Being positioned at the heart of Asia, Afghanistan directly influences the logistic arteries of the whole of Asia. In the framework of possible US withdrawal and ensuing traditional geopolitical rivalry in the region, this article focuses on how India and China carried out or would likely to carry out their joint relations in Afghanistan. It would be interesting to observe the rationale behind their renewed engagement and either it is heading to more people-oriented or towards the new ‘Great Game’. Within this context, this article aims to outline a comprehensive and comparative analysis of India and China’s policy in Afghanistan after 9/11. In which this article argues that despite having some differences in approaches, there is a great possibility for cooperation. This analysis considers both countries’ contemporary political, economic and security engagements, and geopolitical dynamics as a base – which are key variables shaping their present foreign policy towards Afghanistan.
Rahmani, Abdul Rahman. “India’s Soft Power Is Very Effective in Afghanistan.” Hindustan Times,Jan 25, 2019. Accessed June 11, 2019. .
Akhtar, Rabia. 2015. 'Pakistan, India and China After The U.S. Drawdown From Afghanistan', Bepress, The Stimson Centre South Asia Voices, January, 7-8.
Ali, Samran. 2018. 'China's Afghanistan Policy : Implications for Pakistan', Center for International Strategic Studies, Vol. 6, March, 50–69.
Ali, Yasmeen Rashid. “Why Is India Sidelined from the Afghan Peace Process?” Center for Research and Security Studies (Blog). April 2, 2019. Accessed Aug 14, 2019. .
Saif, Shadi Khan. "Afghanistan Looks to China as Peacemaker", Anadolu Agency, Nov 5, 2019, Accessed Feb 4, 2019. .
Government of PRC. Ambassador Xu Feihong Attends the Ribbon-Cutting Ceremony for the Handing-Over of the Additional Items to the China-Aided Parwan Irrigation Project Rehabilitation Works. Kabul: Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, 2012. .
Mishra, Anant. 2017. 'Winning Hearts and Minds’: Assessing India’s Soft Power Diplomacy in Afghanistan', South Asia Journal, Issue 23, Oct. .
Scobell, Andrew. 2015. 'China Ponders Post-2014 Afghanistan: Neither ‘All in’ Nor Bystander', Asian Survey. Vol. 55, March/April, 325-345.
Mohanty, Baisali. “China-India Rivalry Could Have Deadly Consequences for Afghanistan.” The Diplomat, March 9, 2017. Accessed September 21, 2019. .
Basu, Partha Pratim. 2007. 'India and Post Taliban Afghanistan:Stakes, Opportunities and Challenge', India Quarterly, Vol.63, 84-122.
Chansoria, Monika. “China Is Expanding Its Footprint in Afghanistan.” The Sunday Guardian, Oct 20, 2019. Accessed Oct 21, 2019. .
China.AIDDATA.ORG,the “China Opens Confucius Institute in Kabul University, Afghanistan,” Accessed Aug 17, 2019. .
Daim Fazil, Muhammad. 2014. 'China in Afghanistan: Contemporary Engagements and Challenges Ahead', IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol.19, Aug, 83-88.
Daly, John C. K. “China to Provide Military Assistance to Afghanistan’s Badakhshan Province.” The Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst, March 9, 2018. Accessed Aug 9, 2019. .
The Government of PRC. China’s Foreign Aid: Mutual Benefits and Win-Win. Kabul: Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, 2015.
Downs, Erica. 2012. 'China Buys into Afghanistan', SAIS Review of International Affairs, John Hopkins University Press, Vol. 32, Summer-Fall, 65-84.
Energy Infra Post. “China Views Afghanistan-India Air Corridor As A Counter-Balance To CPEC,” Accessed Oct 12, 2019. .