Comparative Case Study on Institutionalization of Ruling Parties Under Military Authoritarianism: Democratic Republican Party Under Park Chung-Hee Regime in South Korea (1961-1979) and GOLKAR Under Suharto Regime in Indonesia (1966-1998)

Journal of Social and Political

Sciences

ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)

ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)

Published: 11 December 2019

Comparative Case Study on Institutionalization of Ruling Parties Under Military Authoritarianism: Democratic Republican Party Under Park Chung-Hee Regime in South Korea (1961-1979) and GOLKAR Under Suharto Regime in Indonesia (1966-1998)

Sungdeuk Lee, Burhan Djabir Magenda

University of Indonesia, Indonesia

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10.31014/aior.1991.02.04.134

Pages: 965-976

Keywords: Democratic Republican Party, GOLKAR, Indonesia, Institutionalization of Political Party, Military Authoritarian Regime, Ruling Party, South Korea

Abstract

South Korea and Indonesia have experienced similar military political interventions and coups which brought a long military authoritarian regime. Strong military authoritarian regime with their own ruling parties could last for 18 years in South Korea and 32 years in Indonesia. In South Korea, Park Chung-hee Regime ended in 1979 when he was murdered by his subordinates, which was followed by the dissolution of the ruling party, Democratic Republican Party (Jeong, 2009, p. 29). Whereas in Indonesia, the reform movement with socio-political instability by the economic crisis in 1997 resulted the collapse of Suharto's hegemony and authoritarian regime in 1998 while the ruling party, Golkar still exists today. This study aims to find answers to why there have been differences in the end of both parties, related with the political party institutionalization. And this study would like to show that the Democratic Republican Party failed to be institutionalized while the Golkar Party could survive and win the election again. Thus, this study would like to say that the level of institutionalization must be different in the Democratic Republican Party and the Golkar Party.

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