Journal of Social and Political
ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)
ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)
Published: 05 June 2020
Consociational Approach to Ethnic Resolution in Malaysia and Lebanon
Husin W. N. W, Rasyid W. I.W, Mujani W. K
National Defence University of Malaysia
Download Full-Text Pdf
Keywords: Consociational approach, Ethnic conflict, Malaysia, Lebanon, 13th May 1969, Lebanon Civil War (1975-1990)
This study aims to address the importance of consociational approach in achieving sustainable peace in post- conflict in multiethnic countries. Malaysia and Lebanon have been applying this concept in resolving the ethnic conflicts and improving the nation’s solidarity. This includes the biggest racial riot in Malaysia on 13th May, 1969 that triggered the suspension of the parliament. Whereas the civil war in Lebanon that lasted for almost 15 years (1975-1990) has altered the composition of the parliamentary representatives. Since the ethnic conflicts are still brewing in both countries, thus the underlying concept of consociational approach has been the subject of criticism. Against these backdrops, there are consocianalist such as Lijphart enumerate that this approach is conducive in emerging the balance of power among the elite group that represent their subcultures. The historical comparative method is specifically useful in conducting the analysis of this study, and the finding showed that the consociational approach is still widely accepted in both of the countries, since it emphasizes the role of elites of sub culture and institution in containing of ethnic conflict.
Abdul Rahman. (1969). Before and after 13th May 1969. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Melayu.
Asna, W.M.N. (1996). Malaysia: The political and economic aspects of accommodation and conflict regulation in an ethnically divided society (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The University of Hull, Yorkshire, England.
Ayana, T. B. (2016). Examining the design of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopian constitution in the light of Arend Lijphart’s guidelines of consociational design for divided societies. Haramaya Law Review, 5(1), 57-85.
Attalides, M. A. (1979). Cyprus: Nationalism and international politics. New York: St Martin’s Press.
Baytiyeh, H. (2016). Has the educational system in Lebanon contributed to the growing sectarian divisions? Education and urban society, 49(5), 546–559.
Bogaards, M. (2019). Formal and informal consociational institutions: A comparison of the national pact and the Taif agreement in Lebanon, nationalism and ethnic. Politics, 25(1), 27-42.
Bormanny, N. C. (2011). Conditional consociationalism: Electoral systems and grand coalitions. Paper to be presented at the ECPR Joint Sessions workshop on Political Violence and Institutions from 12-17 April in St. Gallen, Switzerland.
Brenda, M. S. (2000). The regional sources of power-sharing failure: The case of Lebanon. Political Science Quarterly, 115(2), 247-271.
Cornell, S. E. (2002). Autonomy as a source of conflict: Caucasian conflicts in theoretical perspective. World Politics, 54(02), 245-276.
Chee, S. (1991). Consociational political leadership and conflict regulation in Malaysia. Leadership and security in South East Asia: Institutional Aspects. Singapore.
Cheah, B. K. (2012). Red star over Malaya: Resistance and social conflict during and after the Japanese occupation of Malaya, 1944-1946. (4th ed.). NUS Press: Singapore.
Darby, J. (2001). The effects of violence on peace processes. Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Faaland, J., Parkinson, J.R., & Saniman, R. (2003). Growth and ethnic inequality: Malaysia’s New economic policy: Utusan Publications & Distributors.
Jarret, H. (2016). Consociationalism and identity in ethnically divided societies: Northern Ireland and Malaysia. Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, 16 (3), 401-405.
Helga, M. B. (2005). Power-sharing and post conflict peace periods Department of Sociology and Political Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). Annual National Political Science conference, Hurdalsjøen, Norway.
Husin, W. N. W. (2011). Nation-building and 1 Malaysia Concept: Ethnic relations challenges in the educational field. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 1(9), 1-10.
Husin, W. N. W. 2012. Peradaban dan perkauman di Malaysia: Hubungan etnik Melayu-Cina (Civilization and communalism in Malaysia: Ethnic relation Malays-Chinese). Univerisiti Malaya: Kuala Lumpur.
Ishak, M. M. (2000). Ethnicity and nationalism in the politics of nation-building in Malaysia. The 16TH Conference of the International Association of Historian of Asia. Sabah: University Malaysia Sabah.
Joanne, M. E. (2006). Power sharing in Northern Ireland: Design, operation and proposals, 1999–2006. Belfast: Queen’s University.
Joseph, S. J. (1997). Cyprus: Ethnic conflict and International Politics. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Kartini, A. T., Nidzam, S., Wan Kamal, M., Rogayah, S., Ermy, A., & Rasyid, A. (2013). Power sharing in Malaysia: Beyond unity and political duplicity. Asian Social Science, 9(10), 274-282.
Kassim, F. (2017). Perkembangan persatuan tiga kaum utama di Tanah Melayu sebelum perang dunia kedua (The development of the association's three major races in Malaya before the Second World War). Jurnal Sultan Alauddin Sulaiman Shah, 4(1), 188-209.
Kunovich R. M & Hodson, R. (1999). Conflict, Religious Identity, and Ethnic Intolerance in Croatia. Social Forces, 78(2), 643-668.
Lijphart, A. (1968). The Politics of Accommodation: Pluralism and Democracy in Netherland. California: University of California Press.
Lijphart, A. (1977). Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Lijphart, A. (1985). Power-Sharing in South Africa. Berkeley. Institute of International Studies: University of California.
Lijphart, A. (2004). Constitutional Design for Divided Societies. Journal of Democracy, 15(2), 96-109.
Lustick, I. S. (1997). Lijphart, Lakatos, and Consociationalism. World Politics, 50(1): Special Issue, 88-117.
Marshall, C., & Juliet. (2014). Indonesia-Malaysia relation. Routledge: New York.
Mcrae, K. D. (1979). Comment: Federation, consociation, and corporatism: An addendum to Arend Lijphart. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 12(3), 517-522.
McCrackan, W. D. (1970). The rise of the Swiss Republic: A History. Second Edition. New York, AMS Press.
McGarry, J. & O’Leary, B. (1993). Introduction. McGarry, J. & O’Leary, B (Eds.), The politics of ethnic conflict regulation. London: Routledge, 4-37.
Means, G.P. (1991). Malaysian Politics: The Second Generation. Singapore: Oxford University Press.
Nagle, J., & Clancy, M. A. (2019). Power sharing after civil war: Thirty years since Lebanon’s Ta’if agreement. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics: 1-8.
Pritti, M. K. R. (2012). Ethnic peace in Malaysia (Unpublished master thesis). University Leiden, Netherlands.
Richard, H. D. (1978). Consociational democracy in crisis: The case of Lebanon. Comparative Politics, 10(2), 251-265.
Salamey, I. (2009). Failing consociationalism in Lebanon and integrative options. International Journal of Peace Studies, 14(2), 83-105.
Salvador, F., & Joseph, A. K. (2018). Lebanon confronts partition fears: Has Consociationalism benefitted minorities. Contemporary Review of the Middle East, 5(1), 5-29.
Samir, M., & Youssef, K. (2013). Lebanon: The legacy of sectarian consociationalism and the transition to a fully-fledged democracy. Working Paper Series. Issam Fares Institute for Public Policy and International Affairs. American University of Beirut.
Segawa, N. (2015). Ethnic politics and consociationalism in the 2013 Malaysian election Japanese. Journal of Political Science, 16(2), 177–194.
Schneckener, U. (2002). Making power-sharing work: Lessons from successes and failures in ethnic conflict regulation. Journal of Peace Research. 39(2), 203-228.
Souli, A. (2019). Sectarianism and political order in Iraq and Lebanon. Studies in ethnicity and nationalism, 19(1), 67-87.
Samir, N. Y. (2018). Consequences of consociationalism: Elitism and secular alienation in Lebanon. School of Political Studies. (Unpublished master thesis).. University of Ottawa.
Zartman, W. I. (1992). Internationalization of communal strife: Temptation & opportunities of triangulation. The Internationalization of Communal Strife, (Ed. Midlarsky, M. I). London: Routledge.