Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Journal of Social and Political


ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)

ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)

asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
open access

Published: 25 February 2022

Leisure of Internally Displaced Marawi Families

Rhoma Grace V. Pandan, Alberto L. Dimarucut

University of the Philippines Visayas, University of the Philippines Diliman

journal of social and political sciences
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 60-75

Keywords: Family Leisure, Internal Displacement, Leisure Activities


Family is a strong foundation of a successful nation and participating in leisure activities contributes to a happy and functional unit of society. However, in unfavorable situations, there are families who were drastically displaced in order to survive such as the Marawi siege which had brought massive internal displacement in the history of the Philippines. Using ethnographic research fieldwork methods, this study examined and explores how family leisure is exercised in unfamiliar territories among internally displaced Marawi families and the impacts it had on family leisure experiences in three key concepts: space, activities, and time. The findings revealed that displacement enforced unique constraints on leisure, such as those related to the overlap of work and leisure time and space, limited finances, preference for money accumulate overspending on leisure, have led internally displaced families to discontinue some previous practices, and pursue passive and home-based leisure activities. Displacement, however, also led families to be resilient, adapt to new leisure activities, and contributed to the development of new family leisure values. The family's solid perspective on the role of leisure in strengthening family bonds trumps the limitations and challenges set by current circumstances.


  1. Agate, J., Zabriskie, R. B., Agate, S. T., Poff, R., (2009). Family Leisure Satisfaction and Satisfaction with Family Life. Journal of Leisure Research, 41(2), 205–223

  2. Arai L. 2006. Migrants and Public Services in the UK: A Review of the Recent Literature. Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (COMPAS): Oxford

  3. Brooks-Gunn J, Markman LB. The Contribution of Parenting to Ethnic and Racial Gaps in School Readiness. The Future of Children. 2005; 15:139–168.

  4. Carlson, M. J., & Magnuson, K. A. (2011). "Low-Income Men and Fathers' Influences on Children?” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 635(1), 95–116. doi:10.1177/0002716210393853

  5. Christenson, O. D., Zabriskie, R. B., Eggett, D. L., & Freeman, P. A. (2006). Family Acculturation, Family Leisure Involvement, and Family Functioning among Mexican- Americans. Journal of Leisure Research, 38(4), 475-495.

  6. Deci, L., & Ryan, R. M., (2010) Intrinsic Motivation. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. doi:10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy046

  7. Dodd, D., Zabriskie, R., Widmer, M., & Eggett, D. (2009). Contributions of family leisure to family functioning among families that include children with developmental disabilities. Journal of Leisure Research, 41(2), 261–286.

  8. Domosh, M., & Seager, J., (2001). Putting Women in Place Feminist Geographers Make Sense of the World. The Guilford Press, ISBN: 1-57230-668-8

  9. Freeman, P., & Zabriskie, R. (2003). Leisure and family functioning in adoptive families: Implications for therapeutic recreation. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 37(1), 73–93.

  10. Gil-Rivas, V., Greenberger, E., Chen, C., & Lopez-Lena, M. M. (2003). Understanding depressed mood in the context of a family-oriented culture. Adolescence, 38, 93–109.

  11. Grebler, Moore, Guzman, 1970.

  12. Gunter, G. B. & Gunter, N. C. (1980). Leisure Styles: A Conceptual Framework for Modern Leisure. Sociological Quarterly, 21:361-74

  13. Hasmi, H., Gross, M., & Scott-Young, C. (2014). Leisure and settlement distress: the case of South Australian migrants. Annals of Leisure Research, 17:4, 377-397, DOI: 10.1080/11745398.2014.948023

  14. Hawks, S. R. (1991). Recreation in the family. In S. J. Bahr (Ed.), Family research: A sixty year review, 1930–1990 (Vol. 1, pp. 387–433). New York, NY: Lexington.

  15. Holman, T., & Epperson, A. (1984). Family and leisure: A review of the literature with research recommendations. Journal of Leisure Research, 16, 277–294.

  16. Holman, T. B., & Jacquart, M. (1988). Leisure activity patterns and marital satisfaction: A further test. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 69-78.

  17. Hornberger, L., Zabriskie, R., & Freeman, P. (2010). Contributions of family leisure to family functioning among single-parent families. Leisure Sciences, 32(2), 143–161. doi:10.1080/01490400903547153

  18. Huff, C.,Widmer, M.,McCoy, K., & Hill, B. (2003). The influence of challenging outdoor recreation on parent-adolescent communication. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 37(1), 18–37.

  19. Ibrahim, H. (1982). Leisure and Islam. Leisure Studies, 1 (2).

  20. Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1980). Social psychology of leisure and recreation. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers.

  21. Iso-Ahola, S. E., Jackson, E. L., & Dunn, E. (1994). Starting, ceasing, and replacing leisure activities over the life-span. Journal of Leisure Research, 26, 227-249.

  22. Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) PHILIPPINES Global Report on Internal Displacement (GRID 2018) Conflict displacement Figures analysis (Retrieved August, 27, 2018)

  23. Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) Philippines Annual Report, Norwegian Refugee Council, 2013-2018 (IDMC) (Retrieved July 28, 2018)

  24. Jackson, E. L., & Dunn, E. (1988). Integrating ceasing participation with other aspects of leisure behavior. Journal of Leisure Research, 20, 31-45.

  25. Juniu, S., (2000). The Impact of Immigration: Leisure Experience in the lives of South American Immigrants. Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 358-381

  26. Junio, S., (2002). Perception of Leisure in Latino Women Immigrants. World Leisure Journal, 44:1, 48-55, DOI: 10.1080/04419057.2002.9674260

  27. Kelly, John R., (1983). Leisure Identities and Interaction, London. England, George Allen & Unwin

  28. Kelly, J. R. (1996). Leisure (3rd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

  29. Kelly, John R., (1999). Leisure Behaviours and Styles: Social, Economic and Cultural factors. Leisure Studies: Prospects for the 21st Century, 135-50

  30. King, G., McDougall, J., Dewit, D., Petrenchik, T., Hurley, P., & Law, M. (2009). Predictors of Change Over Time in the Activity Participation of Children and Youth with Physical Disabilities. Children's health care : journal of the Association for the Care of Children's Health, 38(4), 321–351. doi:10.1080/02739610903237352

  31. Lester, S. (1999). An introduction to phenomenological research. Stan Lester Developments, Taunton.

  32. Leversen, I., Torsheim,. T., & Samdal, O. (2012). “Gendered leisure activity behavior among Norwegian adolescents across different socio-economic status groups”. International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies, 4, 355–375.

  33. Mactavish, J. B., & Schleien, S. (1998). Playing together growing together: Parents’ perspectives on the benefits of family recreation in families that include children with a developmental disability. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 32(3), 207–230.

  34. Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. London, Sage.

  35. Newman, B., Hartman, T., Taber, C., (2013). Social Dominance and the Cultural Politics of Immigration, Political Psychology, 35:2, 165-186

  36. Offer, S., & Schneider, B., (2011). Revisiting the Gender Gap in Time-Use Patterns: Multitasking and Well-Being among Mothers and Fathers in Dual-Earner Families. American Sociological Review 76:6, 809–833

  37. Olson, D. (1989). Circumplex model of family systems VIII: Family assessment and intervention. In D. Olson, C. Russell, & D. Sprenkle (Eds.). Circumplex model: Systemic assessment and treatment offamilies. New York: Haworth.

  38. Orthner, D. (1976). Patterns of leisure and marital interaction. Journal of Leisure Research, 8, 98–111.

  39. Orthner,D.,&Mancini, J. (1990). Leisure impacts on family interaction and cohesion. Journal of Leisure Research, 22(2), 125–137.

  40. Orthner, D. K., & Mancini, J. A. (1991). Benefits of leisure for family bonding. In B. L. Driver, P. J. Brown, & G. L. Peterson (Eds.). Benefits of leisure,  215-301. State College, PA: Venture.

  41. Poff, R., Zabriskie, R., & Townsend, J. (2010a). Australian family leisure: Modeling parent and youth data. Annals of Leisure Research, 13(3), 420–438.

  42. Poff, R., Zabriskie, R., & Townsend, J. (2010b). Modeling family leisure and related family constructs: A national study of U.S. parent and youth perspectives. Journal of Leisure Research, 42(3), 365–391.

  43. Regadio, C. Q. (2018). Islamic migrant community formation and integration: the case of Salam Compound, Barangay Culiat, Quezon City. Philippine Political Science Journal, 1–20. doi:10.1080/01154451.2018.1507500

  44. Reyes, J. A. L. (2016). Exploring leisure time activities and sociodemographic indicators of subjective happiness and self-perceived health among Filipinos. ASEAS – Austrian

  45. Rezazadeh, M., & Yazarloo, H. (2017). Study Leisure Time in Urban Space (Case Study: Gorgan City). International Journal of Scientific Study, 5:4, 959-964

  46. Roberts, Kenneth, (1978). Contemporary Society and the growth of leisure. Longman, 1978, NewYork, ISBN 0582489903

  47. Rublee, C., & Shaw, S.M. (1991). Constraints on the leisure and community participation of immigrant women: Implications for social integration. Loisir et Société, 14 (1) 133-150.

  48. Ryan L. 2011. Migrants’ social networks and weak ties: accessing resources and constructing relationships post-migration. The Sociological Review 59: 708–724.

  49. Shaw, S. M. (1994). Gender, leisure, and constraint: Towards a framework for the analysis of women’s leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 26(1), 8–22.

  50. Sime, D., & Fox, R., (2015). Migrant Children, Social Capital and Access to Services Post-Migration: Transitions, Negotiations and Complex Agencies. Children & Society, 29, 524–534

  51. Smith, K., Freeman, P., & Zabriskie, R. (2009). An examination of family communication within the core and balance model of family leisure functioning. Family Relations, 58(1), 79–90.

  52. Smith, K., Taylor, S., Hill, B., & Zabriskie, R. (2004). Family functioning and leisure in single-parent families. Abstracts from the 2004 Symposium on Leisure Research, 53. National Recreation and Park Association: Ashburn, VA.

  53. Smith, M. P., & Guarnizo, L. E. (2006). Transnationalism from below. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

  54. Spencer S, Ruhs M, Anderson B, Rogaly B. (2007). Migrants’ Lives Beyond the Workplace: The Experiences of Central and Eastern Europeans in the UK. Joseph Rowntree Foundation: York.

  55. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J., (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

  56. Stodolska, M., and Yi, J., (2003). Impacts of Immigration on Ethnic Identity and Leisure Behavior of Adolescent Immigrants from Korea, Mexico and Poland. Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 49-79

  57. Stodolska, M., (2006) The Influence of Religion on the Leisure Behavior of Immigrant Muslims in the United States. Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 293-32

  58. Stodolska, M., & Livengood, J. S., (2006). “The influence of religion on the leisure behavior of immigrant Muslims in the United States”. Journal of Leisure Research, 38(3), 293- 320.

  59. Stodolska, M., Marcinkowski, M., Yi-Kook, J., (2007) The Role of Ethnic Enclosure in Leisure in the Economic Achievement of Korean Immigrants. Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 1-27

  60. Stodolska, M., (2000). Changes in Leisure Participation Patterns After Immigration. Leisure Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 22:1, 39-63, DOI: 10.1080/014904000272966

  61. Stodolska, M. (1998). Assimilation and leisure constraints: Dynamics of constraints on leisure in immigrant populations. Journal of Leisure Research, 30, 521-551.

  62. Swinton, A., Freeman, P., Zabriskie, R., & Fields, P. (2008). Nonresident fathers’ family leisure patterns during parenting time with their children. Fathering, 6(3), 205–225. doi:10.3149/fth.0603.205

  63. Tirone, S., & Pedlar, A., (2000) Understanding the Leisure Experiences of a Minority Ethnic Group: South Asian Teens and Young Adults in Canada. Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure, 23:1, 145-169, DOI: 10.1080/07053436.2000.10715607

  64. Townsend, J. A., Puymbroeck, M., &. Zabriskie, R. B., (2017) The Core and Balance Model of Family Leisure Functioning: A Systematic Review. Leisure Sciences, 39:5, 436-456, DOI: 10.1080/01490400.2017.1333057

  65. UNHCR:The UN Refugee Agency. Internally displaced people. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr. org/en-us/internally-displaced-people.htmlUN High Commissioner for Refugees, Protection Cluster (April 30, 2018). Philippines: Displacement Dashboard, Mindanao, Issue no. 47: April 2018

  66. Voskanyan , A., Beghloyan , M., Tarkhnishvili , L., Jorbanadze, R., & Roberts, K., (2003) Life and leisure among young adult war refugees in the South Caucasus. World Leisure Journal, 45:3, 4-12, DOI: 10.1080/04419057.2003.9674320

  67. Wells, M. S., Widmer M. A., & McCoy, J. K. (2004) Grubs and grasshoppers: Challenge-based recreation and the collective efficacy of families with at-risk youth. Family Relations, 53(3), 326-333.

  68. Walker, G. J., & Deng, J. (2014). Leisure among Asian North Americans. In M. Floyd, G. Walker, M. Stodolska, & K. Shinew (Eds.), Race, ethnicity, and leisure 97-110. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  69. Walker, G. J., & Halpenny, E. A., & Deng, J. (2011). Leisure satisfaction and acculturative stress: The case of Chinese-Canadian immigrants. Journal of Leisure Research, 43, 226-245.

  70. Walker, G. J., & Ito, E. (2016). Mainland Chinese Canadian Immigrants' Leisure Satisfaction and Subjective Well-Being: Results of a Two-Year Longitudinal Study. Leisure Sciences, 1-12.

  71. Wallace, R., & Wolf, A., (1995). Contemporary Sociological Theory, Prentice Hall, Simon & Schuster Company Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632, ISBN 0-13-03LE4S-X

  72. Yu, P., & Berryman, D. L. (1996). The relationship among self-esteem, acculturation and recreation participation of recently arrived Chinese immigrant adolescents. Journal of Leisure Research, 28(4), 251-273.

  73. Zabriskie, R. B., & McCormick, B. P. (2001). The Influences of Family Leisure Patterns on Perceptions of Family Functioning*. Family Relations, 50(3), 281–289. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3729.2001.00281.x

  74. Zabriskie R. B., & McCormick, B. P. (2003). Parent and Child Perspectives of Family Leisure Involvement and Satisfaction with Family Life. Journal of Leisure Research, 35(2), 163- 189.

  75. Zabriskie, R. (2000). An examination of family and leisure behavior among families with middle school aged children (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

  76. Zabriskie, R., & Freeman, P. (2004). Contributions of family leisure to family functioning among transracial adoptive families. Adoption Quarterly, 7(3), 49–77.