Journal of Social and Political


ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)

ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)

Published: 29 June 2020

Refugee Contributions Shouldn’t Be Kept a Secret: Hmong United States Relations

Christina V. Luna, Pa Nhia Xiong, Susan M. Tracz

California State University Fresno

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Pages: 571-583

Keywords: CIA, Clan, Fiv Yeem (Hmong), Laos, Mekong, Paj Ntaub (Hmong)/Story Cloth (English), Refugee Camps, Secret War, Shaman/Shamanism, Vietnam War


The Hmong people have endured and overcome great challenges throughout their history before resettling in the US and around the world. Hmong people have unique experiences as a stateless people and people of war and genocide. From 1961 to 1975, the United States (US) Central Intelligence Agency recruited Hmong men and boys to fight alongside the Americans and against the communists in Laos, during the Vietnam War. The participation of the Hmong in Laos is referred to as the Secret War, it was America’s deadliest war. Included in this study are a review of the literature and a narrative inquiry study that highlights the lived experiences of 10 Hmong soldiers who served in the Secret War. This study attempts to educate the many Hmong Americans, and the American society as a whole, about the Hmong people’s historical contributions in the United States military as soldiers in the Secret War. The sacrifices of the soldiers deem their recognition essential to honoring Hmong boys and men who fought fiercely alongside the US soldiers and those who lost their lives. This study exemplifies why these Hmong soldiers deserve a revered place in American history.


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