Journal of Social and Political

Sciences

ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)

ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)

Published: 24 June 2018

Sexual Savagery in Armed Conflicts: A Critique of the United Nations Response

James E. Archibong, Ph.D., Miebaka Nabiebu

University of Calabar, Nigeria

pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf

10.31014/aior.1991.01.02.19

Abstract

One of the consequences of the Second World War was the formation of the United Nations (UN) in 1945. The horrendous crimes committed in that war, including sexual violence against women and girls, necessitated the elevation of issues of human rights to the top of the UN agenda. The UN over the years evolved various mechanisms to end sexual violence against women during armed conflict. These measures have achieved minimal results. The problem is even worse as sexual violence is now employed as a tactic of war, while the UN appears unable to help the victims. This article examines UN measures to end wartime sexual assault on women, among them, adoption of resolutions, advocacy, the imposition of sanctions and prosecution of offenders. There are also challenges such as the non-binding character of its resolutions, lack of intervention force, the absence of data and paralysis in the Security Council. The work finds that the UN has not done enough to protect women in conflict zones, and recommends the training of peacekeepers on gender issues, prosecution of offenders and inclusion of women in peace-building.

References

Barrow, A. (2010)  “UN Security Council Resolution 1325 and 1820: constructing gender in armed conflict and international humanitarian law” International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 92, No. 877

Bowcott, O. (2005) “Report reveals shame of UN Peacekeepers” The Guardian at www.guardian.co.uk/world/2005/mar/251/... Last visited 12/11/2016

Brownmiller, S. (1975) Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape in Gendercide Watch, “Case Study: Genocide in Bangladesh, 1971” at www.gendercide.org/case-bangladesh...

Buergenthal, T. (1995) International Human Rights in a Nutshell St. Paul Minn: West Publishing Co.

Cabrera-Balleza, M. (2013) “Resolution 1325 a powerful tool for women’s organizing, mobilization and action” at www.gnwp.org/resolution-1325-a-Balleza  last visited 15/10/2016

Dowling, S (2008) New German study looks at rape trauma 60 years on available at Spiegel ONLINE International at www.spiegel last visited 21/10/2016

Etuk,G. R. (2003) Violence Against Women  Calabar: Baye Communications

Genser, J. (2014) The United Nations Security Council in the Age of Human Rights Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

 Human Rights Watch, (2005) “Seeking Justice” at www.hrw.org/en/reports/2005/03/06/seeking justice last visited 27/10/2016

Human Rights Watch, (2003) “Sexual violence within the Sierra Leone conflict” at http;//www.hrw.org/background/Africa/sl-bck0226htm. Last visited 23/10/2016

Iwilade, A. (2011) “Women and Peace Talks in Africa”, Journal of International Women’s Studies /15398706, 20110101

Ledere, E. M. (2014) “UN approves Boko Haram sanctions” The Nation May 23, 2014,

Haeri, M and Puechguirbal, N. (2010) “”From helplessness to agency: examining the plurality of women’s experiences in armed conflict” Vol. 92 Number 877  

Linder, D.H. (2001) “Equality For Women: The Contribution of Scandinavian Women at the United Nations, 1946-66” Scandinavian Studies Vol. 73 No. 2  

Lindsey, C. (2001) Women Facing War Geneva: International Committee of the Red Cross

Lindsey-Curtet, C., Holst-Roness, F.T. and Anderson, L.  (2004) Addressing the Needs of Women Affected by Armed Conflict Geneva: International Committee of the Red Cross

Macdougall, Gay J. (1998) systematic rape, sexual slavery and slavery-like practices during armed conflict Final Report, E/CN.4/Sub.2/1998/13

Ndifon, C. O. and Archibong, J.E. (2009) “Sexual Violence against Women as a Weapon of War: An Appraisal of the Legal and Institutional Responses” A Contemporary Journal of Inter-Disciplinary Studies Vol. 1 No. I

Ndulo, Muna (2009) “The United Nations Responses to the Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Women and Girls by Peacekeeping Missions” Berkley Journal of International Law, Vol. 27 Issue 1

New Zimbabwe (2016) “Zimbabwe: PDP – Corrupt Shava Not Fit for Top UN Job” Africa News Service, Oct 5 2016 Issue

Pfanner, T. (2009) “Various mechanisms and approaches for implementing     international humanitarian law and protecting and assisting war victims” International Review of the Red Cross vol.91, No. 674      

Richey, K.C. (2007) “Several Steps Sideways: Institutional Legal Developments Concerning War Rape and the Human Rights of Women” Texas Journal of Women and the Law Vol. 17 No. 1

Slavenka, D. (2008) “Rape as a Weapon of War” at http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/06/26/opinion/eddrakulic.php  last visited 15/11/2012

 

Steinberg, D. (2010) “Working Paper on Preventing and Responding to Sexual Violence against Women Displaced by Conflict” at http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/publication-type/commentary/working last visited 23/12/2016

Sterngold, J. (1993)  “Japan Admits Army Forced Women Into War Brothers” The New York Times at www.nytimes.com/1993/08/05/world last visited 18/12/2016

UNICEF (1996) Sexual violence as a weapon of war available at www.unicef.org/sowc96pk/sexviol.htm last visited 21/10/2016

United Nations, “The United Nations and the Status of Women” at http://www.un.org/Conference/women/PubInfo/Statue/TextOnly.htm. last visited 9/2/2011

United Nations (1992) Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Kuwait under Iraqi Occupation, (E/CN.4/1992/26)

United Nations, (1994) Preliminary Report Submitted by the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences (E/CN4/1995/42)

United Nations, (2008) Sexual Violence against Women and Children in Armed Conflict, Parliamentary Hearing at the United Nations New York, 20 – 21

United Nations (2013) Sexual Violence in Conflict One of World’s Most Vicious Crimes; Global Community Must Use All Its Tools to End It, Says Secretary-General in Security Council, Security Council 6948th Meeting SC/10977 17 April.

United Nations Security Council (2014) Conflict-related sexual violence Report of the Secretary-General S/2014/181 13 March

United Nations News Centre  (2015) “Adopting resolution, UN creates International Day against Sexual violence in conflict” available at www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp? Last visited 16/12/2016 

UNFPA (2005), Guidelines for Gender-based Violence interventions in Humanitarian Settings: Focusing on Prevention of and Response to Sexual Violence in Emergencies at www.unfpa.org/publication/guidleilnes last visited 25/11/2016

UNFPA (2006) the rights of women www.unfpa.org/resources/human-rights last visited 22/11/2016

United Nations Security Council,  (2015) Conflict-related sexual violence Report of the Secretary-General, S/2015/203  at www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/...6D27.../s. 203 last visited 26/10/2016

Women 2000, (1998, April) Sexual Violence and Armed Conflict: UN Response, UNITED NATIONS, Division for the Advancement of Women, Division of Economic and Social Affairs

About Us

The Asian Institute of Research is an online and open-access platform to publish recent research and articles of scholars worldwide. Founded in 2018 and based in Indonesia, the Institute serves as a platform for academics, educators, scholars, and students from Asia and around the world, to connect with one another. The Institute disseminates research that is proven or predicted to be of significant influence for the general public.

Stay Connected

  • Instagram - Black Circle
  • Facebook - Black Circle
  • LinkedIn - Black Circle

Contact Us

Please send all inquiries to the email:

editorial@asianinstituteofresearch.org

Business Address:

5th Floor, Kavling 507, Fajar Graha Pena Tower, Jl. Urip Sumohardjo No.20, Makassar, Indonesia 90234

Copyright © 2018 The Asian Institute of Research. All rights reserved