Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Journal of Social and Political

Sciences

ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)

ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)

asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
crossref
doi
open access

Published: 10 March 2022

Site of Memory, Site of Trauma: The Memorial Hall of the Victims in Nanjing Massacre and China-Japan Reconciliation

Mariya M. Yarlykova

Zhejiang University, China

journal of social and political sciences
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf

doi

10.31014/aior.1991.05.01.337

Pages: 76-89

Keywords: Nanjing Massacre, Second World War, China-Japan Relations, Social Reconciliation, Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall, Historical Memory

Abstract

Preserving the theme of victimization as a pivotal in China’s remembering of the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, the Memorial Hall of the Victims in Nanjing Massacre serves as the main symbol of traumatic memory in China. The Nanjing Massacre plays a big role in the Chinese people’s consciousness and is considered as one of the most debated historical issues between China and Japan. Differences over war memory have negatively impacted Sino-Japanese relations for many decades. But in China, the Nanjing Massacre is regarded as a national trauma that will never be forgotten. This research is aimed to analyze the role of the Memorial Hall of the Victims in the Nanjing Massacre in the construction of attitudes toward Japan and Japanese society in China. And answer what kind of the historical representation of the Nanjing Massacre are shaped by the Memorial Hall? Does the Memorial Hall activate the emotional perception of history? Does it initiate advance reconciliation among former enemies, or, in contrast, deteriorate social reconciliation?

References

  1. Armstrong, Paul. (2012). Fury over Japanese politician's Nanjing Massacre denial. 23 February 2012. Available at CNN: https://edition.cnn.com/2012/02/23/world/asia/china-nanjing-row/index.html;

  2. Brandt, Willy. (1978). People and politics: the years 1960-1975. Collins.

  3. Callahan, William. A. (2004). National Insecurities: Humiliation, Salvation, and Chinese Nationalism. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 29 (2): 199–218.

  4. China News. (2014). Xinwen Beijing: Qin Hua Rijun Naning Datusha Yunan Tongdao Jininaguan (News background: The Memorial Hall of the Victims in Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders). 13 December 2014. Available at China News: https://www.chinanews.com.cn/gn/2014/12-13/6874127.shtml

  5. Denton, Kirk A. (2007). Heroic Resistance and Victims of Atrocity: Negotiating the Memory of Japanese Imperialism in Chinese Museums. The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus 5 (10): 1-29

  6. Gang, Wei. (2017). Memorial hall to honor Iris Chang opens in Huai'an. 10 April 2017. Available at China Daily: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2017-04/10/content_28866419.htm

  7. Gries, Peter. (2004). China’s New Nationalism: Pride, Politics and Diplomacy. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  8. Gu, Xiang. (2021). Nanjing Massacre in Chinese and Japanese history textbooks: transitivity and Appraisal. Critical Discourse Studies: 1-17. DOI: 10.1080/17405904.2021.1886956

  9. Gustafsson, Karl. (2020). Understanding the persistence of history-related issues in Sino–Japanese relations: from memory to forgetting. Int Polit 57: 1047–1062. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41311-020-00219-7

  10. He, Yinan. (2007). Chinese Nationalism and the Emerging Sino-Japanese Conflict. Journal of Contemporary China 16 (5): 1-24.

  11. He, Yinan. (2009). The Search for Reconciliation: Sino-Japanese and German-Polish Relations Since World War II. Cambridge University Press.

  12. IMTFE. (1946). Judgment of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East.Tokyo, Japan. Available at the website of the Library of Congress: https://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/Judgment-IMTFE-Vol-II-PartB-Chapter-VIII.pdf

  13. Irischang.net. (2011). About Iris Chang. Available at official website of Iris Chang: http://www.irischang.net/about/

  14. Lies, Elaine. (2017). Japan hotel won't remove books that deny Nanjing Massacre during Olympics. 2 June 2017. Available at Reuters: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-japan-china-hotel-idUSKBN18T0ZO

  15. Liu, Megan. (2017). Can the Past Serve the Present? The Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall. Journal of Chinese Humanities 3: 203-218.

  16. Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders. Journal of Educational Media, Memory and Society 4 (2): 41–68.

  17. People Republic of China (PRC). (2021). Aiguo Zhuyi JIaoyu Shifan Jidi Mingdan (The List of Patriotic Education Dases). Available at website of Chinese Communist Party News: http://cpc.people.com.cn/GB/33843/

  18. PRC. The State Council Information Office. (2018). The Nanjing Massacre. 16 March 2018. Available at: http://english.scio.gov.cn/featured/chinakeywords/2018-03/16/content_50715071.htm

  19. Qian, Fengqi, and Guo-Qiang Liu. (2019). Remembrance of the Nanjing Massacre in the Globalised Era: The Memory of Victimisation, Emotions and the Rise of China. China Report 55 (2): 81-101. DOI: 10.1177/0009445519834365

  20. Renmin Ribao. (2020). Di Qi Ge Nangjing Datusha Sinanzhe Guojia Gongjiri: Guo Xing Gongji Si Woguo Shang (The 7th National Memorial Day for the Victims of the Nanjing Massacre). 14 December 20202. Available at: http://js.people.com.cn/n2/2020/1214/c360300-34471666.html

  21. Rose, Caroline. 2009. Sino-Japanese Relations: Facing the Past, Looking to the Future? (Routledge Advances in Asia-Pacific Studies). Routledge.

  22. Schneider, Claudia. (2008). The Japanese History Textbook Controversy in East Asian Perspective. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 617: 107–122. DOI: 10.1177/0002716208314359

  23. Shin, Gi-Wook and Daniel C. Sneider. (Eds.). (2011). History Textbooks and the Wars in Asia: Divided Memories. Routledge.

  24. Statista Research Department. (2021). Most visited museums worldwide in 2019 and 2020. 29 September 2021. Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/901072/museums-by-total-attendance-worldwide/

  25. The Genron NPO. (2021). Survey Results of 17th Joint Public Opinion Poll on Japan-China Public Opinion Comparison. October 2021. Available at: https://www.genron-npo.net/world/archives/11542-2.html

  26. The Memorial Hall. The Memorial Hall of the Victims in Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders. (2021a). About Museum. Available at the official website of the Memorial Hall of the Victims in Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders: v

  27. The Memorial Hall. The Memorial Hall of the Victims in Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders. (2021a). Our History. Available at the official website of the Memorial Hall of the Victims in Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders: http://www.19371213.com.cn/en/about/history/

  28. UNESCO. (2015). Documents of Nanjing Massacre. Memory of the World. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/memory-of-the-world/register/full-list-of-registered-heritage/registered-heritage-page-2/documents-of-nanjing-massacre/

  29. Violi, Patrizia. 2012. Educating for Nationhood: A Semiotic Reading of the Memorial Hall for Victims of the Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders. Journal of Educational Media, Memory & Society 4 (2): 41-68.

  30. Wang, Xiaokui. (2017). Historical shifts in remembering China’s "Nanjing Massacre.” Chinese Studies in History, 50 (4): 324-334. DOI: 10.1080/00094633.2017.1407613

  31. Wang, Zheng. (2012). Never Forget National Humiliation: Historical Memory in Chinese Politics and Foreign Relations. (New York: Columbia University Press.

  32. Wei, Guihong. (2017). Qianshi Bu Wang Houshi Zhi Shi: Ji Wiyuan Benke Sheng Dang Zhibu Canguan Nanjing Datusha Yunan Tongbao Jinianguan Yougan (Past experience guide for the future: the party of the bachelor students of the Institute of Foreign Languages and Culture visited the Nemorial Hall of the Victims of the Nanjing Massacre. 25 October 2017. Available at School of Foreign Studies, Nanjing University: https://sfs.nju.edu.cn/0d/66/c10759a265574/page.htm

  33. Xinhua. (2014).Zhongguo Renmin Kangri Shenzhen Shanghai Jinan, Nanjing Datusha Yunanzhe Guojia Gongjiri Queding (The Victory Day of the Chinese People's Anti-Japanese War and the National Memorial Day for the Victims of the Nanjing Massacre are established). 27 February 2014. Available at website of The Central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of China: http://www.gov.cn/jrzg/2014-02/27/content_2625090.htm

  34. Xinhua. (2017b). Memorial Hall of Victims in Nanjing Massacre closed for renovation. 20 November 2017. Available at the Xinhua News: http://www.xinhuanet.com//english/2017-11/20/c_136765644.htm

  35. Xinhua. (2017c). Gai "8 Nina Kangzhan" wei "14 Nian Kangzhan,” Da Zhong Xiaoxue Jiaocai Xiugai Zhe Yi Gaininan You He Shenyi (What is the significance of the concept of the revision of textbooks for universities, middle schools and primary schools after changing the "8 years of War of Resistance" to "14 years of War of Resistance"? 11 January 2017. Available at website of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China: http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2017-01/11/content_5158937.htm#1

  36. Xinhua. (2021a). Ceremony held to commemorate Nanjing Massacre survivors. 19 September 2021. Available at Xinhua News: http://www.news.cn/english/2021-09/19/c_1310196764.htm

  37. Xu, Hongxia. (2021). Di Ba Ge Guojjia Gongjiri Qianhou Jiangsu Jiang Juxing 18 Xiang Jinian Huodong (18 commemorative events will be held in Jiangsu before and after the Eighth National Memorial Day). 30 November 2021. Available at Guojia Gongji Wang (National Memorial Network): http://www.cngongji.cn/2021-11/30/c_1310354258.ht

  38. Yoshida, Takashi. (2009). The Making of the "Rape of Nanking": History and Memory in Japan, China, and the United States. Oxford University Press.

  39. Zhang, Lianhong. (2017). The Nanjing Massacre and the traumatic memory of Nanjing residents. Chinese Studies in Histor 50 (4): 258-265, DOI: 10.1080/00094633.2017.1404785

  40. Zhao, Suisheng. (1998). A state-led nationalism: The patriotic education campaign in post-Tiananmen China, Communist and Post-Communist Studies 31(3): 287-302