Journal of Social and Political
ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)
ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)
Published: 25 December 2019
Social Analysis of the Impact of Money Marriage on Psycho-Emotional State of Female Children in Becheve, Obanliku Local Government Area, Cross River State Nigeria
Akonam Chybuikem Richards
Download Full-Text Pdf
Keywords: Money Marriage, Psycho-Emotional State, Female Children, Becheve, Nigeria
The study was focused on social analysis of the impact of money marriage on psycho-emotional state of female children in Becheve, Obanliku Local government Area of Cross River State. The study adopted the survey research design. Well, structured questionnaire was administered to 400 randomly sampled respondents consisting of families and dwellers in Utanga, Ugbakoko, Amana, Keyi and Imale, in Becheve. Data generated was analysed using descriptive statistics. Results revealed that money marriage is a serious problem and has a greater tendency of enhancing psychological and/or emotional abuse, physical abuse and sexual abuse of the female children. It was recommended that state and local governments should mobilize families and the wider community to raise awareness of the harmful consequences of child marriage can change attitudes and reduce the acceptance among those who make the decision to marry girls as children; and religious and traditional leaders, too, have the potential to play a key role in speaking out against child marriage and changing community attitudes towards money marriage.
- Abbasi-Shavazi M. J., Philip Morgan S., Hossein-Chavoshi M., McDonald P. Family change and continuity in Iran: birth control use before first pregnancy. Journal of Marriage and Family. 2009;71(5):1309–1324. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00670.x.
- Ahmed S., Khan A., Khan S., Noushad S. Eearly marriage; a root of current physiological and psychosocial health berdens. International Journal of Endorsing Health Science Research. 2014;2(1):50–53.
- Butchart A, Harvey AP, Mian M, Furniss T. Preventing child maltreatment: a guide to taking action and generating evidence, World Health Organization. Available at: Accessed January 9, 2012.
- Cashmore J, Shackel R. The long term effects of child sexual abuse. The Child Family Community Australia (CFCA) Paper No. 11, 2013.
- Chandra-Mouli V., Greifinger R., Nwosu A., et al. Invest in adolescents and young people: it pays. Reproductive Health. 2013;10(1, article 51) doi: 10.1186/1742-4755-10-51.
- Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2008). State Statutes. Available online at
- Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2008). State Statutes. Available online at
- Dahl G. B. Early teen marriage and future poverty. Demography. 2010;47(3):689–718. doi: 10.1353/dem.0.0120.
- DeJong J., Jawad R., Mortagy I., Shepard B. The sexual and reproductive health of young people in the Arab countries and Iran. Reproductive Health Matters. 2005;13(25):49–59. doi: 10.1016/S0968-8080(05)25181-9.
- DePanfilis, Diane (2006). Child Neglect: A Guide for Prevention, Assessment and Intervention. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration of Children and Families.
- Dowell, K., Hughes, C., Leicht, C., Madigan, A., & Thomas, D., (2003). Emerging practices in the prevention of child abuse and neglect. Available online at
- Elo S., Kyngäs H. The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2008;62(1):107–115. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04569.x.
- Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, et al. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: the adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study. 1998;14:245-58.Am J Prev Med
- FIGO Committee for the Ethical Aspects of Human Reproduction and Women's Health. Ethical considerations on the health consequences of child or adolescent marriage. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2015;128(1):83–84.
- Finkelhor D, Ormrod R, Turner H, Hamby SL. The victimization of children and youth: a comprehensive, national survey. Child Maltreatment
- Garbarino, J., Guttmann, E., & Seeley, J.W. (1986). The Psychologically Battered Child. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass. Pearl, P. (1994). Emotional abuse. In A.E. Brodeur & J.A. Monteleone (Eds), Child Maltreatment: A Clinical Guide and Reference. St Louis: GW Medical Publishing
- Gilbert R, Kemp A, Thoburn J, Sidebotham P, Radford L, Glaser D, Macmillan HL. Recognising and responding to child maltreatment. 2009;373:167-80.Lancet
- Glaser, D. (2002). Emotional abuse and neglect (psychological maltreatment): a conceptual framework. Child Abuse & Neglect, 26, 697-714.
- Gluck, S. (2011, November 23). What is Psychological Abuse of a Child? HealthyPlace. Retrieved on 2019, May 11 from
- Godha D., Hotchkiss D. R., Gage A. J. Association between child marriage and reproductive health outcomes and service utilization: a multi-country study from South Asia. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2013;52(5):552–558. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.01.021.
- Goldman, J., Salus, M. K., Wolcott, D., Kennedy, K. Y. (2003). A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice. Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Child Abuse and Neglect. Available from
- Government of India. Ministry of Home affairs. Census 2011. India: Office of Registrar General and Census Commissioner.
- Graneheim U. H., Lundman B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Education Today. 2004;24(2):105–112. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2003.10.001.
- Haberland N., Chong E., Bracken H. Married Adolescents: An Overview. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2003.
- Hassouneh-Phillips D. S. ‘Marriage is half of faith and the rest is fear allah’: marriage and spousal abuse among American Muslims. Violence Against Women. 2001;7(8):927–946. doi: 10.1177/10778010122182839.
- Herman-Giddens ME, Brown G, Verbiest S, et al. Underascertainment of child abuse mortality in the United States. 1999;282:463-7.JAMA
- Hosseini H., Erfani A. Ethnic differences in the attitudes and practice of consanguineous marriage among Kurds and Turks in Uromiyeh District, Iran. Journal of Comparative Family Studies. 2014;45(3):389–403.
- Hsieh H.-F., Shannon S. E. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research. 2005;15(9):1277–1288. doi: 10.1177/1049732305276687.
- International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect. World Perspectives on Child Abuse, 6th edn. International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect, 2006. (12 May 2014, date last accessed).
- Jawad H. A. The Rights of Women in Islam. An Authentic Approach. Palgrave Macmillan; 1998.
- Kairys, Steven W., Johnson, Charles F., Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect. (2002) The Psychological Maltreatment of Children–Technical Report. Pediatrics 2002 109: e68. Available online at:
- Keenan HT, Leventhal JM. The evolution of child abuse research. In RM Reece, CW Christian (Eds). , 3rd Ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2009:1-18.Child Abuse Medical Diagnosis and Management
- Kempadoo K., Dunn L. L. Factors That Shape the Initiation of Early Sexual Activity among Adolescent Boys and Girls: A Study in Three Communities in Jamaica. Kingston, Jamaica: UNICEF and UNFPA; 2001.
- Kempadoo K., Dunn L. L. Factors That Shape the Initiation of Early Sexual Activity among Adolescent Boys and Girls: A Study in Three Communities in Jamaica. Kingston, Jamaica: UNICEF, UNFPA; 2001.
- Khanna T., Verma R., Weiss E. Child marriage in South Asia: realities responses and the way forward. 2013,
- Kirst-Ashman K., Hull G. Brooks/Cole Empowerment Series: Understanding Generalist Practice. Cengage Learning; 2014.
- Krug EG, Mercy JA, Dahlberg LL, Zwi AB (eds). World Report on Violence and Health. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2002.
- Lincoln Y. S., Guba E. G. Naturalistic Inquiry. Newbury Park, Calif, USA: SAGE Publications; 1985.
- Livingstone S., Das R. POLIS Media and Family Report. London, UK: POLIS, London School of Economics and Political Science; 2010.
- Loaiza E., Sr., Wong S. Marrying too young. End child marriage. 2012,
- Maker AH, Shah PV, Agha Z. Child physical abuse: prevalence, characteristics, predictors, and beliefs about parent-child violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. 2005;20:1406-28.. J Interpers Violence
- Matlabi H., Rasouli A., Behtash H. H., Dastjerd A. F., Khazemi B. Factors responsible for early and forced marriage in Iran. Science Journal of Public Health. 2013;1(5):227–229. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20130105.17.
- Mensch B. S., Soler-Hampejsek E., Kelly C. A., Hewett P. C., Grant M. J. Challenges in measuring the sequencing of life events among adolescents in Malawi: a cautionary note. Demography. 2014;51(1):277–285. doi: 10.1007/s13524-013-0269-2.
- Ministry of Interior National Organization for Civil Registration of Islamic Republic of Iran. 2013,
- Mosavi S. A., Babazadeh R., Najmabadi K. M., Shariati M. Assessing Iranian adolescent girls' needs for sexual and reproductive health information. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2014;55(1):107–113. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.11.029.
- Muhammad A. R. Marriage in Islam. Canadian Society of Muslims; 1993.
- Population Action International (2012) Media kit, a grim reality: The reproductive Health of Married girls. Retrieved from www.population.org. on 30.12.2016
- Ramakrishnan N., Arora V. Media perspectives on partnerships to address family health in northern India. Journal of Family Welfare. 2010;56:93–99.
- Runyan DK, Shankar V, Hassan F, Hunter WM, Jain D, Paula CS, Bangdiwala SI, Ramiro LS, Muñoz SR, Vizcarra B, Bordin IA. International variations in harsh child discipline. 2010;126(3):e701-11.Pediatrics
- Saadat S., Chowdhury S., Mehryar A. Fertility Decline in the Islamic Republic of Iran 1980–2006: A Case Study. Tehran, Iran: Institute for Research on Planning and Development; 2010.
- Sabbe A., Oulami H., Zekraoui W., Hikmat H., Temmerman M., Leye E. Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights. BMC International Health and Human Rights. 2013;13(1, article 43) doi: 10.1186/1472-698x-13-43.
- Santhya K. G. Early marriage and sexual and reproductive health vulnerabilities of young women: a synthesis of recent evidence from developing countries. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2011;23(5):334–339. doi: 10.1097/gco.0b013e32834a93d2.
- Santhya K. G., Jejeebhoy S. J. Adolescents' health and human rights. Sexual and reproductive health and rights of adolescent girls: evidence from low- and middle-income countries. Global Public Health. 2015;10(2):189–221. doi: 10.1080/17441692.2014.986169.
- Schnitzer PG, Covington TM, Wirtz SJ, Verhoek-Oftedahl W, Palusci VJ. Public Health Surveillance of Fatal Child Maltreatment: Analysis of 3 State Programs. . 2008;98(2):296–303.Am J Public Health
- Sege RD, Flaherty EG. Forty years later: inconsistencies in reporting of child abuse. 2008;93:822-4.Arch Dis Child
- Sinmisola, O, Richards C. A. (2015); Money Woman. Calabar; Amazingrafiks.
- Southall DP, Samuels MP, Golden MH. Classification of child abuse by motive and degree rather than type of injury. 2003;88(2):101–104.Arch Dis Child.
- Study on Child Abuse: India. Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India, 2007. May 2014, date last accessed).
- Theoklitou D, Kabitsis N, Kabitsi A (2012). "Physical and emotional abuse of primary school children by teachers". Child Abuse Negl. 36 (1): 64–70. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.05.007. PMID 22197151
- Theodore AD, Chang JJ, Runyan DK, Hunter WM, Bangdiwala SI, Agans R. Epidemiologic features of the physical and sexual mal- treatment of children in the Carolinas. . 2005;115(3).Pediatrics
- Torabi F., Baschieri A. Ethnic differences in transition to first marriage in Iran: the role of marriage market, women's socio-economic status, and process of development. Demographic Research. 2010;22:29–62. doi: 10.4054/demres.2010.22.2.
- Tremayne S. Modernity and early marriage in Iran: a view from within. Journal of Middle East Women's Studies. 2006;2(1):65–94. doi: 10.1215/15525864-2006-1003.
- Turner C. Out of the Shadows: Child Marriage and Slavery. London, UK: Anti-Slavery International; 2013.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau. (2010). Child Maltreatment 2008. Available from
- UNFPA. (2013) State of the World Population 2013: Motherhood in Childhood. New York, NY: United Nations Population Fund.
- UNFPA. From childhood to womanhood: meeting the sexual and reproductive health needs adolesent girls. Fact Sheet. 2012
- UNFPA. Marrying too young end child marriage in Tanzania. 2013,
- UNICEF. Life Skills Based Education in South Asia. In a Regional Overview Prepared for: The South Asia Life Skills-Based Education Forum. UNICEF; 2005. based_education_in_south_asia.pdf.
- UNICEF, Hidden in Plain Sight: A Statistical Analysis of Violence against Children, 2014.
- United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) (2008). Child Marriage and the Law, Legislative Reform Initiative Paper Series, Global Policy Section. New York
- Whealin, Julia (23 February 2016). "Child Sexual Abuse". National Center for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, US Department of Veterans Affairs. Archived from the original on 8 December 2016.
- WHO. World report on violence and health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2002. May 2014, date last accessed).
- Wiik K. A. ‘You'd Better Wait!’—socio-economic background and timing of first marriage versus first cohabitation. European Sociological Review. 2009;25(2):139–153. doi: 10.1093/esr/jcn045.
- Willan S. A Review of Teenage Pregnancy in South Africa—Experiences of Schooling, and Knowledge and Access to Sexual & Reproductive Health Services. Partners in Sexual Health; 2013.
- World Bank. Fertility Decline in the Islamic Republic of Iran 1980–2006: A Case Study. Washington, DC, USA: World Bank; 2010.
- World Bank, Voice and Agency: Empowering Women and Girls for Shared Prosperity, 2014)
- World Health Organization and International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (2006). "1. The nature and consequences of child maltreatment" (PDF). Preventing child maltreatment: a guide to taking action and generating evidence. Geneva, Switzerland. ISBN 978-9241594363.
- World Health Organization. Child maltreatment. Fact Sheet, N150. Geneva: WHO, 2014. (10 May 2014, date last accessed).
- World Health Organization. Report of the consultation on child abuse prevention. Geneva: WHO, 1999. (10 May 2014, date last accessed).
- Yann Le Strat, Caroline Dubertret, Bernard Le Foll, Child Marriage in the United States and Its Association With Mental Health in Women. Pediatrics Journal of American Academy of Pediatrics, 2011)