Journal of Social and Political

Sciences

ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)

ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)

Published: 13 July 2020

The Civil Rights Act of 1964: Beyond Race to Employment Discrimination Based on Sex: The “Three Letter Word” That Has Continued to Vex Society and The United States Supreme Court

John H. Shannon, Richard J. Hunter, Jr.

Seton Hall university, USA

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10.31014/aior.1991.03.03.196

Pages: 613-636

Keywords: Discrimination Based on Sex, Civil Right Act of 1964, Filibuster, Cloture, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

Abstract

This article is a comprehensive review of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, more specifically, Title VII, which outlawed discrimination based upon, “race, color, creed, national origin, and sex.” The article traces the legislative genesis of the Act, the function of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, and discusses some of the major cases decided by the United States Supreme Court and other federal courts that have defined both the reaches and limits of the legislation which initially focused on prohibiting discrimination based on “race.” The article then focuses on discrimination based on “sex” and highlights the role the United States Supreme Court has played in fleshing out the parameters of employment discrimination from the 1960s through the historic decision reached by the Court in June of 2020 in Bostock v. Clayton County, Georgia, relating to sexual orientation, transgender status, and sex stereotyping.

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CASES

  1. Attitude Express, Inc. v. Zarda (2020). 590 U.S. ____ (United States Supreme Court)

  2. Bostock v. Clayton County, Georgia (2020). 590 U.S. ____ (United States Supreme Court)

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  24. Texas Dept. of Community Affairs v. Burdine (1981). 450 U. S. 248 (United States Supreme Court

  25. Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Atonio (1989). 490 U.S. 642 (United States Supreme Court)

  26. Washington v. Davis (1976). 426 U.S. 229 (United States Supreme Court)


STATUTES

  1. Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967. 29 U.S.C. Section  621 to Section 634.

  2. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. 42 U.S.C. Section 12101.

  3. Civil Rights Act of 1875. 18 Stat. 335–337.

  4. Civil Rights Act of 1964. Public Law 88-352, 78 U.S. Statutes 241.

  5. Civil Rights Act of 1991. Public Law 102-166.

  6. Equal Pay Act of 1963. Public Law 88-38.

  7. Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009. Public Law 111-2.

  8. Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act (2009). 18 U.S.C. Section 249.

  9. Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Public Law 93-112.



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