Journal of Social and Political


ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)

ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)

Published: 06 April 2020

The Function and Typology of the Padmasana Tiga Architecture in Besakih Temple, Bali Indonesia

Ida Bagus Idedhyana, Ngakan Putu Sueca, Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendra, Ida Bagus Wira Wibawa

Udayana University, Indonesia

pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf


Pages: 291-299

Keywords: Traditional Balinese Architecture, Padmasana Tiga, Function and Typology


Padmasana architecture is part of traditional Balinese architecture, it is a sacred building that functions as God's sthana (place/position). The existence of symbols as religious expressions is very thick coloring the realization of padmasana architecture, a very diverse typology, and there are still many meanings that need to be expressed. Padmasana tiga is one of the most important types of padmasana buildings, manifested from three Padmasana, standing tall on a rectangular base. Its unique shape, different from other padmasana buildings, gives rise to diverse interpretations, thereby increasing the attractiveness of this building for research. Padmasana tiga is located in the main and largest temple in Bali, Besakih Temple, on the slopes of Mount Agung, Karangasem Regency, Bali Province. The purpose of this study is to reveal the padmasana tiga functions and their typology which are closely related to the teachings of Shiva Siddhanta, so that they can be better understood by the Hindu community in Bali and the wider community. In order to express its function and typology, a descriptive qualitative method was used, by observing, documenting and interviewing Hindu priests, intellectuals who understood the Shiva Siddhanta concept, and undagi (traditional Balinese craftsman). Padmasana tiga is the embodiment of the great soul of the universe, a vertical representation of God, a God in three different realms called 'Tri Purusa'. Judging from its layout which is in the middle of the mandala (zone) facing the entrance and at its peak there are 3 rongs (empty throne), this padmasana belongs to the type of padmasana kurung (brackets). Judging from the number of rongs and the number of palih (level), which amounted to 7, padmasana tiga including the type of padmasana anglayang.


  1. Agastya. 2010. "Padma Tiga Pura Besakih Sumber Kesucian, Pemujaan Tri Purusa." Balipost, p. 1, p. 9.
  2. Agastya, I.B.G., Mantra, I.B., Sugriwa, I.G.B., Sarkar, H.B., Kern, J.H.C., dan Rassers, C.H. 2002. "Padmasana dan Siwa Budha Puja." In Siwa-Budha Puja di Indonesia, pp. 172-174. Denpasar: Yayasan Dharma Sastra.
  3. Anonymous. 1988. Wrhaspati Tattwa. Translated by K.A Wijaya. Singaraja: STKIP Agama Hindu Singaraja. p. 1-18.
  4. Anonymous. 2000. Himpunan Keputusan Seminar Kesatuan Tafsir Terhadap Aspek-Aspek Agama Hindu I-XV. Denpasar: Pemerintah Propinsi Bali. p. 12, p. 87.
  5. Anonymous. 2009. Tutur Bhuana Kosa. Translated by W.Budha Gautama. Surabaya: Paramita. p. 149-153, 186, 115-124.
  6. Anonymous. tt-a. Raja Purana Purana. Denpasar: Dinas Kebudayaan Propinsi Bali.
  7. Anonymous. tt-b. Wariga Catur Winasa Sari. Translated by I.P Maron. Denpasar-Bali Dinas Agama Daerah TK. I. pp. 20-21.
  8. Covarrubias, M. 1937. Island Of Bali. London Toronto Melboune Sydney: Cassel and Company Limited. p. 268, p. 317, pp. 202 dan 6.
  9. Gautama, W.B. 2009. Tutur Bhuana Kosa. Surabaya: Paramita. p. 124, pp. 115-116.
  10. Mardiwarsito, L. 1990. Kamus Jawa Kuno Indonesia. IV ed. Ende: Nusa Indah. p. 529.
  11. Mertha, I.P. 1996. Padma Buwana/Prekempa. Denpasar: Dokumentasi Budaya Bali. p. 35.
  12. Mirsa, I.G.N.R., Ardana, I.G.G., Putra-Agung, A.A., Widia, I.W., Simpen, I.W., Wardha, I.W., dan Surasmi, I.G.A. 1986. Sejarah Bali. Denpasar: Proyek Penyusunan Sejarah Bali, Pemerintah Daerah Tingkat I Bali. pp. 143-144.
  13. Pandit, B. 2005. Pemikiran Hindu. Translated by I.G.A. Dewi Paramita. Surabaya: Paramita. p. 207, p. 2039.
  14. Pillai, S.S.S. 1952. Saiva Siddhanta. Ishvar Ashram Trust, New Delhi: University Annamalainagar. pp 3-4.
  15. Rao-Gopinatha, M.A. 1916. Elements Of Hindu Iconography. Vol. II—Part I. The Law Printing House, Mount Road-Madras: Cornell University Library. p. 39 , p. 69, pp. 86-87, p. 95.
  16. Stuart-Fox, D.J. 1982. One a Century Pura Besakih and Eka Dasa Rudra Festival. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan and Citra Indonesia. p. 14.
  17. Stuart-Fox, D.J. 2010. Pura Besakih (Pura, Agama, dan Masyarakat Bali). Denpasar: Udayana University press. p. 94, p. 95.
  18. Subagiasta, I.K. 2006. Saiva Siddhanta di India dan di Bali. Surabaya: Paramita. p. 17, 4, 14-18.

About Us

The Asian Institute of Research is an online and open-access platform to publish recent research and articles of scholars worldwide. Founded in 2018 and based in Indonesia, the Institute serves as a platform for academics, educators, scholars, and students from Asia and around the world, to connect with one another. The Institute disseminates research that is proven or predicted to be of significant influence for the general public.

Contact Us

Please send all inquiries to the email:

Business Address:

5th Floor, Kavling 507, Fajar Graha Pena Tower, Jl. Urip Sumohardjo No.20, Makassar, Indonesia 90234

Copyright © 2018 The Asian Institute of Research. All rights reserved

Stay Connected

  • Instagram - Black Circle
  • Facebook - Black Circle
  • LinkedIn - Black Circle