Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Journal of Social and Political

Sciences

ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)

ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)

asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
crossref
doi
open access

Published: 08 November 2021

The Nature of Personality Disorders among Females

Reem Kh. Mahdi

University of Baghdad, Iraq

journal of social and political sciences
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf

doi

10.31014/aior.1991.04.04.314

Pages: 38-45

Keywords: Personality, Disorder, Female, Gender, Bias, DSM-5

Abstract

The study aimed to review the literature about personality disorders among females and the role of potential gender bias in diagnosis with these disorders. Personality disorder PD had defined as an inflexible pattern of long duration leading to significant distress or impairment. Women suffer from many types of stress throughout their life according to economic position and social status. However, there are many opinions on the gender differences in PD's and gender can be a powerful element to determine mental health. Unfortunately, there is gender and social bias to view mental illness depending on the patient's gender. Many regions in the world have social cultures that contribute to disorders' development. Due to stigma and social traditions, the Arab region seems to be further away from global diagnosis and statistics for personality disorders. Finally, It's essential for clinicians and researchers to move away from being satisfied with the results of Western studies and not trying to generalize only western findings in diagnosing disorders.

References

  1. A.P.A.(2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Menual of Mental Disorders (5 ed.). U.S.A. American Psychiatric Association, Inc.

  2. Barzega, G., Maina, G., Venturello, S., & Bogetto, F. (2001). Gender-related distribution of personality disorders in a sample of patients with panic disorder. European Psychiatry , 16 (3), 173-179. DOI: 10.1016/s0924-9338(01)00560-0 .

  3. Blagov, P., & Ortigo, K. M. (2017). Schizoid Personality Disorder and Gender. In K. L. Nada, The SAGE Encyclopedia of Psychology and Gender (pp. 1442-1444). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications , Inc. DOI: 10.1007/s10862-010-9183-8 . PMID: 21116455 .

  4. Bor, W., McGee, T. R., Hayatbakhsh, R., Dean, A., & Najman, J. M. (2010). Do antisocial females exhibit poor outcomes in adulthood? An Australian cohort study. Aust N Z J Psychiatry , Jul;44(7). 648-57. DOI: 10.3109/00048671003631159 . PMID: 20560852 .

  5. Bornstein, R. F. (1996). Sex differences in dependent personality disorder prevalence rates. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice , 1-12.

  6. Busch, A. J., Balsis, S., Morey, L. C., & Oltmanns, T. F. (2016). Gender Differences in Borderline Personality Disorder Features in an Epidemiological Sample of Adults Age 55-64: Self Versus Informant Report. J Pers Disord. , 30 (3), 419-32. DOI: 10.1521/pedi_2015_29_202 . PMID: 26067157 . PMCID: PMC4757501 .

  7. Carter, J. D., Joyce, P. R., Mulder, R. T., Sullivan, P. F., & Luty, S. E. (1999). Gender differences in the frequency of personality disorders in depressed outpatients. J Pers Disord. , 13 (1), 67-74. DOI: 10.1521/pedi.1999.13.1.67 . PMID: 10228928 .

  8. Caspi, Avshalom, Roberts, Brent W., & Shiner, Rebecca L.(2005). Personality Development: Stability and Change. Annu. Rev. Psychol., 56, 453-484, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141913.

  9. Clover, K. (2021, 9). Gender Differences in the Clinical Presentation of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Review Personality Disorder: Retrieved 10 2, 2021, from digitalcommons.nl.edu: https://digitalcommons.nl.edu/diss/600/

  10. Eubanks-Carter, C., & Goldfried, M. R. (2006). The impact of client sexual orientation and gender on clinical judgments and diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 62 (6), 751-770. DOI: 10.1002/jclp.20265 . PMID: 16541385

  11. Fontaine, N., Carbonneau, R., Vitaro, F., Barker, E. D., & Tremblay, R. E. (2009). Research review: a critical review of studies on the developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females. J Child Psychol Psychiatry , 363-85. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01949.x . PMID: 19236525

  12. Fontenelle, L., Marques, C., & Versiani, M. (2002). The effect of gender on the clinical features and therapeutic response in obsessive-compulsive disorder . Braz. J. Psychiatry .

  13. Fortunato, A., & Speranza, A. M. (2018). Personality traits and disorders in childhood: clinical evaluation and diagnosis. Clinical Neuropsychiatry: Journal of Treatment Evaluation, 15(4), 222–235.

  14. Golomb, M., Fava, M., Abraham, M., & Rosenbaum, J. F. (1995). Gender differences in personality disorders . Am J Psychiatry , 152 (4), 579-82. DOI: 10.1176/ajp.152.4.579 . PMID: 7694907.

  15. Green, A., MacLean, R., & Charles, K. (2021). Female Narcissism : Assessment , Aetiology , and Behaviorl Manifestations. Pyshcological Reprots . https://doi.org/10.1177/00332941211027322 . PMID: 34154472.

  16. Holthausen, B. S., & Habel, U. (2018). Sex Differences in Personality Disorders. Current Psychiatry Reports , 20 (107). DOI: 10.1007/s11920-018-0975-y . PMID: 30306417.

  17. Jane, S. J., Oltmanns, T. F., South, S. C., & Turkheimer, E. (2007). Gender Bias in Diagnostic Criteria for Personality Disorders: An Item Response Theory Analysis. J Abnorm Psychol. , 116 (1), 166-175. DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.116.1.166 . PMID: 17324027. PMCID: PMC4372614 . 

  18. Johnson, D. M., Shea, M. T., Yen, S., Battle, C. L., Zlotnick, C., Sanislow, C. A., et al. (2003). Gender differences in borderline personality disorder: findings from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study. Comprehensive Psychiatry , 44 (4), 284-292. DOI: 10.1016/S0010-440X(03)00090-7 . PMID: 12923706.

  19. Kagan, J., & Marcel, Z. (1996). Early childhood predictors of adult psychopathology. Harvard Review of Psychiatry , 341-350. DOI: 10.3109/10673229609017202 . PMID: 9384964.

  20. Kavanagh, B. E., Stuart, A. L., Berk, M., Turner, A., Dean, O. M., Pasco, J. A., et al. (2020). Personality Disorder increases risk of low quality of life among women with mental state disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry , 102, 1-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2020.152193 .PMID: 32730960.

  21. Klonsky, E. D., Jane, J. S., Turkheimer, E., & Oltmanns, T. F. (2002). Gender Role and Personality Disorders. J Pers Disord. , 464-476. DOI: 10.1521/pedi.16.5.464.22121 . PMID: 12489312. PMCID: PMC4364134 .

  22. Kloss, Brianna (2009). Cluster B Personality Disorders separated by gender expectations, Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato, 9(7), https://cornerstone.lib.mnsu.edu/jur/vol9/iss1/7.

  23. Kubala, K. (2021, June 23). Effects of gender discrimination on health. Retrieved 10 15, 2021, from Medical News Today: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/effects-of-gender-discrimination.

  24. Kumperscak, H. G. (2020). Personality Disorders in Adolescents and Different Therapeutic Approaches. In mental Disorders (pp. 1-11). Intechopen.

  25. LaRue, G. C. (2019). Misdiagnosing Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Setting Bias and Gender Bias Influence Diagnostic Decision-Making? and Gender Bias Influence Diagnostic Decision-Mak. Retrieved 10 5, 2021, from corescholar.libraries.wright.edu: https://corescholar.libraries.wright.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3265&context=etd_all.

  26. Latzman, R. D., Megraya, A. M., Hecht, L. K., Miller, J. D., Winiarski, D. A., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2015). Self-reported psychopathy in the Middle East: a cross-national comparison across Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United States. BMC Psychol. , 3 (37). DOI: 10.1186/s40359-015-0095-y . PMID: 26515052. PMCID: PMC4625874 .

  27. Laurenssen, E. M., Hutsebaut, J., Feenstra, D. J., Busschbach, J. J., & Luyten, P. (2013). Diagnosis of personality disorders in adolescents: a study among psychologists. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health , 7(3). https://doi.org/10.1186/1753-2000-7-3 .

  28. Lee, R. (2017). Mistrustful and Misunderstood: A Review of Paranoid Personality Disorder. Curr Behav Neurosci Rep. , 151-165. DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0116-7 . PMID: 29399432.

  29. Macfie, J. (2009). Development in Children and Adolescents Whose Mothers Have Borderline Personality Disorder. Child Dev Perspect., 66-71. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2008.00079.x . PMID: 20161670 .

  30. Mathes, B. M., Morabito, D. M., & Schmidt, N. B. (2019). Epidemiological and Clinical Gender Differences in OCD . Curr Psychiatry Rep. 21(5):36. DOI: 10.1007/s11920-019-1015-2 . PMID: 31016410.

  31. Naveed, H. (2018, September 10). Mental Health in the Middle East. Retrieved 10 12, 2021, from Middle East Medical: http://www.middleeastmedicalportal.com/mental-health-in-the-middle-east/

  32. National Institute of Mental Health NIMH. (n.d.). Personality Disorders. Retrieved 10 14, 2021, from nimh: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/personality-disorders.

  33. Oltmanns, T. F., & Powers, A. D. (2012). Gender and Personality Disorders. In T. A. Widiger (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Personality Disorders. Oxford University Press.

  34. Ortigo, K. M., & Blagov, P. (2017). Avoidant Personality Disorder and Gender. In K. L. Nadal, The SAGE Encyclopedia of Psychology and Gender (pp. 117-120). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications , Inc.

  35. Paris, J. (2000). The classification of personality disorders should be rooted in biology. J. Pers Disord. , 127-36. DOI: 10.1521/pedi.2000.14.2.127 . PMID: 10897463.

  36. Paris, J. (2007). An overview on gender, personality and mental health. Personality and Mental Health , 1, 14-20. https://doi.org/10.1002/pmh.1.

  37. Paris, J., & Lis, E. (2013). Can sociocultural and historical mechanisms influence the development of borderline personality disorder ? Transcult Psychiatry , 50 (1), 140-51. DOI: 10.1177/1363461512468105 . PMID: 23222803.

  38. Patel, V. (2005). Gender and Mental Health: A Review of Two Textbooks of Psychiatry. Economic and Political Weekly , 40 (18), 1850-1858. DOI:10.2307/4416569 .

  39. Raine, A., Yang, Y., Narr, K. L., & Toga, A. W. (2011). Sex differences in orbitofrontal gray as a partial explanation for sex differences in antisocial personality. Molecular Psychiatry , 16, 227-236. DOI: 10.1038/mp.2009.136 . PMID: 20029391. PMCID: PMC3008752 .

  40. Samuel, D. B., & Widiger, T. A. (2009). Comparative gender biases in models of personality disorder. Personality and Mental Health , 3(1), 12-25. https://doi.org/10.1002/pmh.61 .

  41. Sandanger, I., Nygård, J. F., Sørensen, T., & Moum, T. (2004). Is women's mental health more susceptible than men's to the influence of surrounding stress?, Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. , 39 (3), 177-84. DOI: 10.1007/s00127-004-0728-6 . PMID: 14999449.

  42. Sansone, R. A., & Sansone, L. A. (2011). Gender Patterns in Borderline Personality Disorder. Innov Clin Neurosci. , 16-20. PMID: 21686143. PMCID: PMC3115767 .

  43. Schmeck, K., Schlüter-Müller, S., Foelsch, P. A., & Doering, S. (2013). The role of identity in the DSM-5 classification of personality disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health , 7 (27). DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-7-27 . PMID: 23902698. PMCID: PMC3848950 .

  44. Schmitt, David P., Long, Audrey E., McPhearson, Allante, O'Brien, Kirby, Remmert, Brooke, & Shah, Seema H.(2016). Personality and gender differences in global perspective, International Journal of psychology, 52(S1), 45-56, https://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12265.

  45. Smith, K. (2021, 5 7). Schizophrenia in women : signs , symptoms and challenges. Retrieved 9 21, 2021, from www.psycom.net: https://www.psycom.net/schizophrenia-women.

  46. Sprock, June. (2000). Gender-Typed Behavioral Examples of Histrionic Personality Disorder, Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 22, 107-122, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007514522708 .

  47. Torgersen, S., Kringlen, E., & Cramer, V. (2001). The prevalence of personality disorders in a community sample . Arch Gen Psychiatry , 58 (6), 590-6. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.58.6.590 . PMID: 11386989.

  48. Wang, J., Dey, M., Soldati, L., Weiss, M. G., Gmel, G., & Mohler-Kuo, M. (2020). Psychiatric disorders, suicidality, and personality among young men by sexual orientation. European Psychiatry , 29 (8), 514-522. DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2014.05.001 . PMID: 24972914.

  49. World Health Organization W.H.O. (n.d.). Mental Health and Substance Use. Retrieved 10 2, 2021, from www.who.int: https://www.who.int/teams/mental-health-and-substance-use/promotion-prevention/gender-and-women-s-mental-health.