Journal of Social and Political
ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)
ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)
Published: 22 July 2020
The Relationship between Participatory Democracy and Digital Transformation in Tanzania
Bariki Gwalugano Mwasaga
University of Perugia
Download Full-Text Pdf
Keywords: Participatory/Deliberative Democracy, Democratic Process, Citizens, Participation, Digital
Democracy is something that is discussed differently from various public discourses. It should definitely be known that there is a reason for these different school of thoughts whether one looks from the left, centre or right of the political continuum. Additionally, through participatory democracy, ordinary citizens are engaged and empowered to have a voice on policy and/or decision – making process, which in turn nurtures democracy both at national and local levels. However, studies carried out in Tanzania on democratic process have not paid attention on the relationship between participatory democracy and digital transformation. Therefore, this paper focuses on addressing this relationship by looking first at how public/citizen participation and civic engagement has been increased through participatory democracy and secondly, how digital transformation succeeded in initiating public opinion on pertinent issues including politics and policies? The focal point of this paper is on the potentialities of the digital transformation in creating space for the very disadvantaged population to participate significantly in the political and public sphere.
Anduiza, E., Jensen, M., & Jorba, L. (Eds.). (2012). The Uses of Digital Media for Contentious Politics in Latin America. In Digital Media and Political Engagement Worldwide. A Comparative Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Arias, C. R., Garcia, J., & Corpeño, A. (2015). Population as Auditor of an Election Process in Honduras: The Case of the VotoSocial Crowdsourcing Platform. Policy and Internet, 7(2), 185-202.
Avila, R., Feigenblatt, H., Heacock, R., & Heller, N. (2011). Global Mapping of Technology for Transparency and Accountability. Mimeo. London: Transoarency and Accountability Initiative.
Barrett, G., Wyman, M., & Schatten, V. (2012). Assessing Policy Impacts of Deliberative Civic Engagement. In N. Tina, J. G. Gastil, M. G. Weiksner, & M. Leighninger (Eds.), Democracy in Motion: Evaluating the Practice and Impact of Deliberative Civic Engagement (pp. 181-203). New York: Oxford University Press.
Bass, S., Dalal-Clayton, B., & Pretty, J. (1995, May). Participation in Strategies for Sustainable Development. Environmental Planning Issues(7).
Bherer, L., & Breux, S. (2012). The diversity of public participation tools: Complementing or competing with one another? Canadian Journal of Political Science, 45(2), 379-403.
Bherer, L., Dufour, P., & Montambeault, F. (2016). The participatory democracy turn: an introduction. Journal of Civil Society, 12(3), 225-230.
Bimber, B., Stohl , C., & Flanagin, A. (2008). Technological Change and the Shifting Nature of Political Organization. In A. Chadwick, & P. N. Howard (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Internet Politics. New York: Routledge.
Boulinanne, S. (2009). Does Internet use affect engagement? A meta–analysis of research. Political Communication, 26, 193-211.
Castells, M. (2005). Global Governance and Global Politics. PS: Political Science & Politics, 38(1), 9-16.
Ceccarini, L. (2019). Could the Internet be a safety-net for democracy in crisis? Italian Political Science Review/Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica.
Chadwick, A. (2012). Recent Shifts in the Relationship Between the Internet and Democratic Engagement in Britain and the United States: Granularity, Informational Exuberance, and Political Learning. In E. Anduiza, M. Jensen, & L. Jorba (Eds.), Digital Media and Political Engagement Worldwide. A Comparative Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Christensen, H. S. (2011). Political activities on the Internet: Slacktivism or political participation by other means? First Monday, 16(2). doi:10.5210/fm.v16i2.3336
Cini, L., & Felicetti, A. (2018). Participatory deliberative democracy: toward a new standard for assessing democracy? some insights into the Italian case. Contemporary Italian Politics, 10(2). Retrieved December 01, 2019, from https://doi.org/10.1080/23248823.2018.14
Coleman, S. A., Przybylska, A., & Sintomer, Y. (Eds.). (2015). Deliberation and Democracy: Innovative Processes and Institutions. New York: Peter Lang.
Curato, N., Dryzek, J. S., Ercan, S. A., Hendriks, C. M., & Niemeyer, S. (2017). Twelve key findings in deliberative democracy research. Daedalus, 146(3), 28-38.
Dahl, R. A. (1989). Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Dahl, R. A. (2013). A Preface to Democratic Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Dahlgren, P. (2009). Media and Political Engagement. Citizens, Communication and Democracy. Cambridge-New York: Cambridge University Press.
della Porta, D. (2007). The Global Justice Movement in Cross-National and Transnational Perspective. Paradigm.
della Porta, D. (2013). Social Movements and Democracy: New Challenges, New Challengers, New Theories? In J. VAN SKELENBURG, C. ROGGEBAND , & B. KLANDERMANS (Eds.), The future of social movement research: dynamics, mechanisms and processes (Vol. 39, pp. 347-368). Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press.
della Porta, D., & Diani, M. (2006). Social Movements: An Introduction (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.
Doorenspleet, R. (2019). Rethinking the Value of Democracy. A Comparative Perspective. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.
Druckman, J. N., & Nelson, K. R. (2003). Framing and Deliberation: How Citizens’ Conversations Limit Elite Influence. American Journal of Political Science, 47(4), 729- 745.
Dryzek, J. (2000). Deliberative Democracy and Beyond. Liberals, Critics, Contestations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dryzek, J. (2009). Democratization as Deliberative Capacity Building. Comparative Political Studies, 42(11), 1379–1402.
Dryzek, J. S., & Niemeyer, S. J. (2012). Reconciling Pluralism and Consensus as Political Ideals. American Journal of Political Science, 50, 634-649.
Elster, J. (1998). Deliberative Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fung, A., & Wright, E. O. (2003). Deepening Democracy. Institutional Innovations in
Empowered Participatory Governance. London: Verso.
Gbikpi, B. (2005). Dalla teoria della democrazia partecipativa a quella deliberativa: quali possibili continuità? Stato e mercato(1), 97-130.
Gerodimos, R. (2001). Democracy and the Internet: Access, Engagement and Deliberation. Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, 3(6), 26-31.
Grönlund, K., Bächtiger, A., & Setälä, M. (2014). Deliberative Mini-Publics: Involving Citizens in the Democratic Process. Colchester: ECPR Press.
Habermas, J. (1984). The Theory of Communicative Action. Boston: Beacon Press.
Habermas, J. (1992). Fatti e norme. Contributi a una teoria discorsiva del diritto e della
democrazia, tr. it. di Ceppa L. 1996. Milano: Guerini e Associati.
Hendriks, C. M. (2016). Coupling Citizens and Elites in Deliberative Systems: The Role of
Institutional Design. European Journal of Political Research, 55(1), 43-60.
IIAG (Ibrahim Index of African Governance). (2015). Country insights: Tanzania. Retrieved October 10, 2019, from http://static.moibrahimfoundation.org/u/2015/10/02201457/49_Tanzania.pdf
Lahmann, H., Otto, P., Djordjevic, V., & Maire, J. (2017). Who Governs the Internet? Players and Fields of Action. (I. Kroemer, K. Behroz, Eds., & B. Gutmann , Trans.) Bonn: Abteilung Politische Akademie. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/akademie/13910.pdf
Liston, V., Harris, C., & O’Toole, M. (2013). Bridging Normative Democratic Theory and Internet Technologies: A Proposal for Scaling Citizen Policy Deliberations. Policy & Internet, 5(4).
Lynd, S. (1965). The New Radicals and “Participatory Democracy. Dissent 12(3).
Lyon, A., Zilihona, A., & Masanyiwa, Z. (2018). Report on Assessment of Implementation of Decentralisation by Devolution in Tanzania. United Republic of Tanzania, President’s Office - Regional Administration and Local Government, Dodoma.
Manin, B. (2017). Political deliberation & the adversarial principle. Dædalus, the Journal of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, 146, 39–50. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.1162/DAED_a_00445
Mansbridge, J. (2007). Deliberative Democracy or Democratic Deliberation. In Can the People Govern? Deliberation, Participation, and Democracy. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Marginson, S. (2008). The knowledge economy and the global public sphere. The Beijing Forum 2008, “The Universal Value and the Development Trend of Civilization”, 7-9 November 2008.
Mendelberg, T. (2002). The Deliberative Citizen: Theory and Evidence. In M. X. Delli Carpini, , L. Huddy, & R. Y. Shapiro (Eds.), Political Decision Making, Deliberation and Participation: Research in Micropolitics (Vol. 6, pp. 151-193). Greenwhich: JAI Press.
Michels, A. (2011). Innovations in democratic governance: how does citizen participation contribute to a better democracy? International Review of Administrative Sciences, 77(2), 275–293.
Michels, A., & Binnema, H. (2018). Michels, A. and Binnema, H. Deepening and Connecting Democratic Processes. The Opportunities and Pitfalls of Mini-Publics in Renewing Democracy. Journal of Social Sciences, 7(11). Retrieved January 10, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110236
Mouffe, C. (2000). The democratic paradox. London and New York: Verso.
Mwasaga, B. G. (2019). Inter-Governmental Relations between Central Government and Local Government Authorities in Fostering Sustainable Urban Development in Tanzania. The ECPR/EURA Summer School 2019 in Local Governance 6th to 12th July 2019. Winterthur.
Nabatchi, T. (2010). Addressing the citizenship and democratic deficits: The potential of deliberative democracy for public administration. The American Review of Public Administration, 40(4), 376–399.
Nabatchi, T., Gastil, J., Weiksner, G. M., & Leighninger, M. (Eds.). (2012). Democracy in Motion: Evaluating the Practice and Impact of Deliberative Civic Engagement. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
National Electoral Commission (NEC). (2016). The Report of the National Electoral Commission of 2015 General Election on Presidential, Parliamentary and Councillors Elections in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam: NEC.
Niemeyer, S. (2011). The Emancipatory Effect of Deliberation: Empirical Lessons from Mini- Publics. Politics & Society, 39(1), 103-140.
Olengurumwa, O. (2016). Consider Internet Freedom as A Human Right in Tanzania. Paper presented in 59th Sessions of the African Commission on Human and People’s Rights 23rd October 2016. Banjul. Retrieved November 01, 2019, from https://www.academia.edu/29497617/Consider_Internet_Freedom_in_Tanzania_as_Hum an_Rights
Pateman, C. (1970). Participation and democratic theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pateman, C. (2012). Participatory Democracy Revisited. Perspectives On Politics, 10(1), 7-19.
Pogrebinschi, T. (2017). Does digital democracy improve democracy? Retrieved December 01, 2019, from opendemocracy.net: https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/democraciaabierta/does-digital-democracy-improve- democracy/
Pogrebinschi, T., & Samuels, D. (2014). The Impact of Participatory Democracy: Evidence from Brazil’s National Public Policy Conferences. Comparative Politics, 46, 313-332.
Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Rawls, J. (1984). Una teoria della giustizia. Milano: (a c. di) S. Maffettone, Feltrinelli.
Rawls, J. (1993). Liberalismo politico . Milano: Edizioni di Comunità.
Ridgwell, H. (2017). Digital Democracy' Turns Average Citizens into Influencers in Africa. Retrieved December 02, 2019, from https://www.voanews.com/silicon-valley- technology/digital-democracy-turns-average-citizens-influencers-africa
Rogers, K. (2008). Participatory Democracy, Science and Technology: An Exploration in the Philosophy of Science. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Rosenberg, S. W. (2007). Deliberation, Participation and Democracy. Can the People Govern? New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Santos, B., & Nunes, J. A. (2004). Introduction: Democracy, Participation, and Grassroots Movements in Contemporary Portugal. South European Society and Politics, 9(2), 1-15.
Sen, A. (1999). Democracy as a Universal Value. Journal of Democracy, 10(3), 3-17.
Shayo, D. P. (2016). Facebooking the Tanzanian Elections: Citizen and Party Campaigners in the Social Media Ecosystem. Journal of Education, Humanities & Sciences (JEHS), 5(1), 67- 88.
Shayo, D. P. (2017). Crowdsourcing and Digitalization of Electoral Integrity: A Comparative Analysis of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Muenster - Germany, Muenster.
Shayo, D. P. (2019). Citizen Participation in Local Democracy Online: A Snapshot of Trends and Challenges in Adoption of Crowdsourcing Methods in Tanzania. Journal of Social and Political Sciences,, 2(4). Retrieved January 15, 2020, from https://ssrn.com/abstract=34
Smith, G. (2009). Democratic Innovations. Designing Institutions for Citizen Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sugie, N. F. (2016). Utilizing smartphones to study dis