Journal of Social and Political

Sciences

ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)

ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)

Published: 13 March 2020

The Role of Internal Dynamics in the Political Reform Process in the ASC 2004-2010

Jawad El Hamad

Middle East Studies Center, Jordan

pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf

10.31014/aior.1991.03.01.164

Pages: 256-267

Keywords: Internal Dynamics, Political Reform Process, ASC

Abstract

This main paper's objective is to evaluate the role of the internal dynamics in the political reform process in the ASC. Its main problem is the deficit of political reform achievements compared to the people’s demands in the period under study. Its central question is why this process couldn’t overcome the deficit and what are the main repercussions of such failure on the political stability of the ASC regimes. A reform process is generally wide-reaching. It is economical and social and goes much deeper to affect change in society as a comprehensive process as per (Kroeber, 1996). However, the focus of this paper is mainly on the internal dynamics of the political reform process. Therefore, the paper analyzes the internal efforts, roles, and results of the political reform dynamics and initiatives and their applications. These efforts should be understood within the political scene that prevailed in the Arab Spring Countries "ASC" in 2004, which this paper considers as the start of the benchmark period for the political reform process. The paper analyzes the internal leading reform initiatives and efforts. It examines their elements, conditions, ability to affect the political reform process. It evaluates their results within the ASC context in the period under study 2004-2010 with a particular focus on the cases of Egypt and Jordan.

References

  1. Ahmad, A. M. (2005). Milafi al’iislah alsiyasaa fa alealam aleurbaa [Political Reform in the Arab World]. Alhiwar Almutamadin [Civilised Dialogue]. Retrieved from http://www.m.ahewar.org/s.asp?aid=47971&r=0
  2. Arab Reform Forum. (2004). Alexandria Declaration. Retrieved from http://www.bibalex.org/arf/en/document.html#
  3. CCDP. (2012). Arab Civil Societies after the Uprisings: Challenges during Political Transistions. Centre on Conflict Development and Peacebuilding CCDP.
  4. Cofman Wittes, T. (2004). The New U.S. Proposal for a Greater Middle East Initiative: An Evaluation.
  5. Dunne, M. (2006). Evaluating Egyptian Reform. Carnegie Papers, 66.
  6. Dunne, M., & Hamzawy, A. (2010). From Too Much Egyptian Opposition to Too Little and Legal Worries Besides.
  7. Dunne, M., Hamzawy, A., & Brown, N. J. (2007). Egypt - don’t give up on democracy promotion, 8. Retrieved from http://www.wiso-net.de/webcgi?START=A60&DOKV_DB=ZDZI&DOKV_NO=WAOD817960&DOKV_HS=0&PP=1
  8. Elhamad, J. (2007, February 5). The freedom and democratic change in the Arab world, the scene, and the future. Addostour Newspaper.
  9. Elhamad, J. (2017). Tatawur alfikr alsiyasiu ladaa tayar al’islam alsiyasii fi alealam alearabii alharakat al’iislamiat fi al’urduni nmwdhjaan 2007-2017 [The evolution of political thought in the political Islam in the Arab world; The Islamic Movement in Jordan model 2007-2017. Middle Eastern Studies Journal, 81.
  10. Freer, C., Kubinec, R., & Tatum, D. (2010). The struggle for Reform in Jordan: Elites, Non-Elites, and Fashion Cafe. IMES Capstone Paper Series.
  11. Freihat, E. (2012). Altatowor altareekhi lilahzab alsiyasiah alordinyah 1921-2011 [The Historical Development of the Political Parties’ Laws in Jordan 1921-2011]. Social and Political Science Studies Journal, 39(2), 301–324.
  12. Gill. B, (2013). Did Bush Democratize the Middle East? The Effects of External-Internal Linkages. Political Science Quarterly, 128(4), 653–685. https://doi.org/10.1002/polq.12141
  13. Hamid, S. (2014). Temptations of Power: Islamists and Illiberal Democracy in a New Middle East. Oxford University Press.
  14. Heydemann, S. (2007). Upgrading Authoritarianism in the Arab World. Wahington D.C.
  15. Kroeber, C. (1996). Theory of History of Revolution. Journal of World Historyorld History, 7(1), 21–40.
  16. League of Arab States. (2004). Tunis Declaration. The Summit Conference of the Arab League Council - 16th ordinary session.
  17. Mahafzah, A. (2012). Jordan : The Difficult Path towards Reform, (December), 9.
  18. Majed, Z. (2005). Al-Tatawor Al-Democraty fil Ordon [Democratic Development in Jordan].
  19. Middle East Studies Center. (2006). Afaq Aleslah Waldemocratiah fi Al Urdun 2005-2010 [The prospects of reform and democracy in Jordan 2005-2010](first). Amman: Middle East studies center.
  20. Muasher, M. (2011). A Decade of Struggling Reform Efforts in Jordan: The Resilience of the Rentier System. The Carnegie Papers. Washington D.C.
  21. Muslim Brotherhood. (2004). Muslim Brotherhood Initiatives For Reform in Egypt. Retrieved from http://www.ikhwanweb.com/
  22. Muslim Brotherhood in Jordan. (2005). Ruyat alharakat al’iislamiat lil’iislah fi al’urdun [Vision of the Islamic Movement for Reform in Jordan]. Retrieved from http://www.ikhwanwiki.com/
  23. Muslim Brotherhood in Syria. (2004). Almashrue Alsiyasiu Lisuria Almustaqbal [Syria’s Future Political Project].
  24. No Peace without Justice NPWJ. (2004). Sana’a Inter-Governmental Regional Conference on Democracy, Human rights, and the Role of the International Criminal Court. NPWJ. Retrieved from http://www.npwj.org/MENA/Sanaa-Inter-Governmental-Regional-Conference-Democracy-Human-rights-and-Role-International-Crim
  25. Ottaway, M., & Choucair-Vizoso, J. (2008). Beyond the fac̦ade : political reform in the Arab world, 295.
  26. Ottaway, M., & Hamzawy, A. (2004). Political Reform in the Middle East Can the United States and Europe Work Together?, (December), 1–7.
  27. Oweidat, N., Benard, C., Stahl, D., Kildani, W., O’Connell, E., & Grant, A. K. (2008). The Kefaya movement: A case study of a grassroots reform initiative. National Defense Research Institute RAND.
  28. Ryan, C. R. (2011). Political Opposition and Reform Coalitions in Jordan. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 38(3), 367–390. https://doi.org/10.1080/13530194.2011.621699
  29. United Nations Development Program. (2004). Arab Human Development Report, 2004. Human Development.
  30. United Nations Development Program. (2005). Declaration of the good governance for development in Arab countries initiative.
  31. Vidino, L. (2013). The West and the Muslim Brothers After the Arab Spring. AlMesbar Studies and Research Center.
  32. Yacoubian, M. (2005). Promoting Middle East democracy II : Arab initiatives. U.S. Institute of Peace.

About Us

The Asian Institute of Research is an online and open-access platform to publish recent research and articles of scholars worldwide. Founded in 2018 and based in Indonesia, the Institute serves as a platform for academics, educators, scholars, and students from Asia and around the world, to connect with one another. The Institute disseminates research that is proven or predicted to be of significant influence for the general public.

Stay Connected

  • Instagram - Black Circle
  • Facebook - Black Circle
  • LinkedIn - Black Circle

Contact Us

Please send all inquiries to the email:

editorial@asianinstituteofresearch.org

Business Address:

5th Floor, Kavling 507, Fajar Graha Pena Tower, Jl. Urip Sumohardjo No.20, Makassar, Indonesia 90234

Copyright © 2018 The Asian Institute of Research. All rights reserved