Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Journal of Social and Political

Sciences

ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)

ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)

asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
crossref
doi
open access

Published: 10 May 2021

The Total War Strategy: Challenges in Facing Traitor of the Nation: A Historical Approach During the Indonesian War of Independence

Endro Nurbantoro, Helda Risman, Lukman Yudho Prakoso

Kementerian Pertahanan (Indonesia), Universitas Pertahanan (Indonesia)

journal of social and political sciences
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf

doi

10.31014/aior.1991.04.02.285

Pages: 165-170

Keywords: Total War, Traitor, Spies, State Defense

Abstract

The Indonesian state implements a total defense system, meaning that it involves all the people and all national resources, national facilities and infrastructure, as well as the entire territory of the country as one defense unit. This system demands awareness of the rights and obligations of every citizen to defend the state as a manifestation of its totality. Efforts to raise awareness of defending the state for every citizen are a formidable challenge, recorded in Indonesian history as inseparable from attempts to betray the nation's struggle. Based on this phenomenon, the writer is moved to reveal several historical events during the war for independence in 1945-1949 which recorded the existence of certain people and groups who became traitors to the nation. The discussion in this article uses a qualitative research method using a historical approach, in which the preparation procedure goes through four stages, namely: heuristics, criticism, interpretation, and historiography. The data analysis used is historical analysis, with an emphasis on sharpness in interpreting historical facts. From the analysis conducted, it can be proven that during the war for independence in 1945-1949, the implementation of the total war strategy, which should have received the support of all the people, actually faced quite a tough challenge. This challenge was caused by the existence of certain people and groups who defected to side with the Netherlands, either by joining forces formed by the Netherlands or as spies for the Netherlands. Of course, this is very contrary to the values of state defense that must be possessed by every citizen.

References

  1. Asura, E.R. (2015). Kupilih jalan gerilya, Jakarta: Imania.

  2. Bungin, Burhan. (2007). Penelitian kualitatif. Jakarta: Prenada Media Group.

  3. Cribb, R. (2010). Para jago dan kaum revolusioner Jakarta 1945-1949. Jakarta: Masup Jakarta.

  4. Elands, M. & Gils, R.van. & Schoenmaker, B. (1996). De geschiedenis van 1 Divisie '7 December' 1946-1996. Den Haag: Sdu Uitgevers.

  5. Iqbal, Akhmad. (2010). Perang-perang paling berpengaruh di dunia. Yogyakarta: Jogja Bangkit Publisher.

  6. Jo, Hendi. (2018). Orang-orang di garis depan. Yogyakarta: Matapadi Presindo.

  7. Machiavelli, N. (2003 [1521]). Art of War. Trans. C. Lynch . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago.

  8. Moor, J. A. De. (2015). Jenderal Spoor: kejayaan dan tragedi panglima tentara Belanda terakhir di Indonesia. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kompas.

  9. Nationaal Archief, Arsip NEFIS/CMI, 2.10.62. Inv.nr: 589.

  10. Neuman, W.L. (1994). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

  11. Nordholt, Henk Schulte (ed). (1997). Outward apperances: Dressing state and society in Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV.

  12. Oostindie, G. (2016). Serdadu Belanda di Indonesia 1945-1950: Kesaksian perang pada sisi sejarah yang salah. Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia.

  13. Prabowo, J.S. (2009). Pokok-pokok pemikiran tentang perang semesta. Jakarta: PPSN.

  14. Putra, D.K. (2014). Devide Et Impera: Mengenal taktik dan strategi orang Belanda. Balai Pelestarian Nilai Budaya Aceh.

  15. Saleh, R. H. A. (2000). Mari bung, rebut kembali!. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan.

  16. Simatupang, T.B. (1981). Pelopor dalam Perang Pelopor dalam Damai. Jakarta: Penerbit Sinar Harapan.

  17. Soetanto, H. (2006). Yogyakarta 19 Desember 1948. Jenderal Spoor (Operatie Kraai) versus Jenderal Sudirman (Perintah Siasat No. 1). Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

  18. Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). Sejarah Indonesia modern. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

  19. Tantri, K. (1960). Revolt in Paradise. Kingswood: Windmill Press.

  20. Tjokropranolo. (1993). Panglima besar TNI Jenderal Soedirman: Pemimpin pendobrak terakhir penjajahan di Indonesia: Kisah seorang pengawal, editor, Marzuki Arifin… [et al.]. Jakarta: Haji Masagung.