Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Journal of Social and Political

Sciences

ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)

ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)

asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
crossref
doi
open access

Published: 28 March 2022

The UN MDGs in Indonesia: Analyzing Its Failure in Eradicating Poverty in Indonesia

Abdul Razaq Cangara

Hasanuddin University, Indonesia

journal of social and political sciences
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf

doi

10.31014/aior.1991.05.01.340

Pages: 117-126

Keywords: Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Indonesian Government, Global Poverty Eradication, Norms

Abstract

The United Nations (UN) Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), an international development movement oriented towards human welfare and global poverty eradication with measurable goals and targets, had hit the deadline by 2015. Its implementation reaped various contestations and claims regarding its success and failures in eradicating poverty in Indonesia. The Indonesian government claimed to have succeeded (on the track) in meeting the MDGs targets in eradicating poverty by reducing half of the number of Indonesians who earn one dollar per day (purchasing power parity/PPP) for the period 1990-2015. Meanwhile, the reality on the ground showed the contrast. Many Indonesian people lived in poverty and had minimal access to public health and education facilities. UNESCAP reported that Indonesia was one of the countries in the Asia Pacific region, which was alarming to achieve the MDGs. Based on such contradictions regarding the MDGs' poverty eradication mission in Indonesia, this article aims to examine why the MDGs program had not been able to overcome the problem of poverty in Indonesia? This article employs norm life cycle (dynamics) theory to investigate the problem behind UN MDGs' inability to overcome poverty in Indonesia. UN MDGs were considered a global norm in this article, substantiating the poverty eradication mission. Using the norm life cycle theory theorizing the three stages of norm development, starting from norm emergence, cascade, and internalization, this article reviews and investigates how Indonesia had dealt and performed in each of those norm life cycle stages within the framework of global poverty eradication norm. Based on the theoretical approach used, this article argues that the inability of UN MDGs to resolve poverty in Indonesia was due to the excessive use of statistical and quantitative basis of poverty eradication efforts rather than a more qualitative and welfare building approaches. Moreover, a systemic problem existed upon MDGs' coordination and implementation on the Indonesian government and donor countries/institutions. It included the lack of commitment to official development aid (ODA) realization, renegotiation and elimination of Indonesia's foreign debt, and rampant corruption in the national development and poverty eradication funds.

References

  1. Amartya Sen. (2000). Development As Freedom. Anchor Books.

  2. Amnesti Internasional. (2010). The MDGs Program is Threatened to Fail (Program MDGs Terancam Gagal). Media Indonesia.

  3. Antaranews. (2011). World Bank: Indonesia's Poor Population Drops by 4.6 Million People (Bank Dunia : Penduduk Miskin Indonesia Turun 4,6 Juta Orang). Antaranews. http://www.antaranews.com/print/83572/java-and-wales-music-combined-for- 15th-year-by-gamelan-cardiff

  4. Bappenas, UNDP, A. (2010). Report on the Achievement of Indonesia's Millennium Development Goals 2010 (Laporan Pencapaian Tujuan Pembangunan Milenium Indonesia 2010).

  5. Bappenas. (2010). Guidelines for Formulating Action Plans to Accelerate Achievement of MDGs in the Regions (RAD MDGs) (Pedoman Penyusunan Rencana Aksi Percepatan Pencapaian Tujuan MDGs di Daerah (RAD MDGs)).

  6. Bappenas. (2011). Report on the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Indonesia 2011 (Laporan Pencapaian Tujuan Pembangunan Milenium di Indonesia 2011).

  7. Bappenas, & UNDP. (2007). Report on the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals Indonesia 2007 (Laporan Pencapaian Millennium Development Goals Indonesia 2007).

  8. BPS Indonesia. (2013). Poverty Profile in Indonesia March 2013 (Profil Kemiskinan di Indonesia Maret 2013). BPS Indonesia. http://www.bps.go.id/getfile.php?news=1023

  9. Burchill, S., Linklater, A., & Devetak, R. (2009). Theories of International Relations. Palgrave Macmillan.

  10. Direktorat Pendanaan Luar Negeri Bilateral-Bappenas. (2007). Increased Harmonization of Bilateral Cooperation (Peningkatan Harmonisasi Kerjasama Bilateral).

  11. Easterly, W. (2009). How the Millennium Development Goals are Unfair to Africa. World Development, 37(1).

  12. Finnemore, Martha., & Sikkink, K. (1998). International Norm Dynamics and Political Change. International Organization., 52(4).

  13. Hadar A, I. (2013). Debt Elimination Promise (Janji Penghapusan Utang). Sindonews. http://sports.sindonews.com/read/2013/10/17/18/795055/janji-penghapusan- utang

  14. Hulme, David., & Fukuda-Parr, S. (2009). International Norm Dynamics and "the End of Poverty": Understanding the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) (No. 96; BWPI Working Paper).

  15. INFID. (2009). The Needs of Concrete Policies to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs (Perlu Kebijakan Konkret Untuk Percepatan Pencapaian MDGs). INFID.

  16. Jackson, Robert., & Sorensen, G. (2007). Introduction to International Relations: Theories and Approaches (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press.

  17. Kemlu RI. (2011). Indonesia Has Mainstreamed the MDGs in Development (Indonesia Telah Mengarusutamakan MDGs Dalam Pembangunan). Tabloid Diplomasi.

  18. Keohane, R. O. (1988). International Institutions: Two Approaches. International Studies Quarterly, 32(4).

  19. Republika. (2013). The 2013 Poverty Rate will be Higher than the Government's Target (Tingkat Kemiskinan 2013 Akan Lebih Tinggi dari Target Pemerintah). Republika.Co.Id. http://www.republika.co.id/berita/ekonomi/makro/13/08/18/mrpo4p-tingkat- kemiskinan-2013-akan-lebih-tinggi-dari-target-pemerintah

  20. The Guardian. (2013). UN general assembly 2013: current goals and future priorities on the agenda. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/poverty- matters/2013/Sep/23/un-general-assembly-2013-goals

  21. Transparency International Indonesia. (2013). Corruption May Derail 2015 Development Goals. The Jakarta Post. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2010/09/17/corruption-may-derail-2015- development-goals-tii.html

  22. United Nations. (2013). We can end poverty, millennium development goals and beyond 2015. United Nations. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/bkgd.shtml

  23. Wapres RI. (2010). Speech of the Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia at the Opening Ceremony of Special Ministerial Meeting for MDGs Review in Asia and The Pacific: Run Up to 2015 (Pidato Wapres RI pada Acara Pembukaan Special Ministerial Meeting for MDGs Review in Asia and The Pacific: Run Up to 2015). Kementerian Luar Negeri RI.