Journal of Social and Political
ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)
ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)
Published: 26 June 2020
Withdrawal of the Middle Class from Socio-Political Scene in a Democratizing Iran
Hiroshima University, Japan
Download Full-Text Pdf
Keywords: Middle Class, Revolution, Democratization, Socio-Political Structure
Delving upon the significance of the traditional middle class and the rise of the modern middle class in the modern history of Iran, one can obviously realize their prominent roles in democratizing movements like Constitutional Revolution (1905-1911) and the Iranian Revolution in 1979. The former had a tight connection with the ulama whose undeniable power had earned them high socio-political status, which enabled them to put massive pressure on the ruling regimes. The latter, known as intelligentsia, that had a remarkable rise particularly during and after Reza Shah’s period, made a great effort in modernizing Iran. Needless to say, both groups played significant roles in pro-democratic party of National Front. However, their prominence is deemed to have faded in post-revolution era. Since democratization is a socio-political will and structure, and hence, it requires the participation of socio-political groups, this research aims to examine the elements that have weakened the middle class and lessened its participation in democratizing Iran and to find the obstacles, if any, they have been facing with.
Abrahamian, Ervand. Iran between Two Revolutions.Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982.
Abrahamian, Ervand. A History of Modern Iran, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Adibi, Hossein. Tabaqe-ye Motevasset-e Jadid dar Iran, Tehran: Entesharat-e Jame’e, 1979.
Armaki, Azad. “Tabaqe-ye Pain dar Jame-e Iran Koneshgari Nadarad,” Khabar Gozari-ye Ketab-e Iran, June 2019.
Ashraf, Ahmad. “Zamineye Ejtemai: Sonnat Garai va Tajaddod Khahi,” Iran Nameh, Vol. 42, April 1993.
Enayat, Hadi. Law, State, and Society in Modern Iran: Constitutionalism, Autocracy, and Legal Reform, 1906-1941, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
Fadaee, Simn. Social Movements in Iran: Environmentalism and Civil Society, New York: Routledge, 2012.
Fukuyama, Francis. “The Future of History: Can Liberal Democracy Survive the Decline of the Middle Class?,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 91, No. 1, January 2012.
Kamrava, Mehran. Iran’s Intellectual Revolution. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Katouzian, Homa. Iranian History and Politics: The Dialectic of State and Society. London: Routledge Curzon, 2003.
Katouzian, Homa. Iran, Jame-ye Kutah Moddat-e Kolangi, Tehran: Nashr-e Nei, 2010.
Keddie, Nikki R. Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.
Keddie, Nikki R., and Eric Hooglund, eds. The Iranian Revolution and the Islamic Republic.Washington, DC: Middle East Institute, 1982; Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1986.
Manstead, Antony S. R. “The Psychology of Social Class: How Socioeconomic Status Impacts Thought, Feelings, and Behavior?” British Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 57, Issue 2, April 2018.
Mirmoghtadaee, Mahta. “Profile, Climate Change, and Urbanization Challenges in Iran and the Tehran Region,” Urban Challenges and Urban Design Approaches for Resource-Efficient and Climate-Sensetive Urban Design in the MENA Region, Elke Pahi-Weber, eds. University of Berlin, Young Cities Research Paper Series, Vol. 5, 2013.
Moslem, Mehdi. Factional Politics In Post-Khomeini Iran, New York: Syracuse University Press, 2002.
Nomani, Farhad and Behdad, Sohrab. “Labor Rights and the Democracy Movement in Iran: Building a Social Democracy,” Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights, Vol. 10, Issue 4, 2012.
Sai, Ahmad and Akbar Zade, Fereidoun. “Barrasi-ye Teorik-e Naqsh-e Tabaqe-ye Motevasset-e Jadid dar Tahaqoq-e Gozar be Democracy dar Jonbesh-e Melli-ye Naft,” Daneshname-ye Hoqooq va Siyasat, Vol. 11, Spring and Summer, 2019.
Shafie Far, Mohammad. “Tabaqe-ye Motevvaset-e Jadid va Bisobaati-ye Siyasi dar Iran (1320-1357),” Pažuhešhnâme-ye Enghelâbe Eslâmi, A Quarterly Scientific Research Journal on Islamic Revolution, Vol 4, No 13, Winter 2015.