top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Law and Humanities
Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2827-9735

Judge Gavel
 Scales of Justice
City Crowds
People in Library
open access

Published: 27 June 2022

Freedom of Religion for Non-Muslims in Islam: A Pakistani Affair

Tasmiah Zaman

The Honourable Society of Lincoln’s Inn, United Kingdom

asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 128-134

Keywords: Freedom of Religion, Islam, Shariah, Sunnah, Hindus, Rights of Non-Muslims


Pakistan has long claimed itself to be Shariah compliant, as particularly enshrined in the preamble of its Constitution to be an Islamist State. However, the religious minority, which makes up about 2-4% of the total population, especially the Hindus, have always been the target of persecution, denied religious freedom and even forced to convert to Islam. It is an irony that a state making such a constitutional claim of abiding by the Quran and Sunnah has turned a deaf ear to the freedom of religion and the rights that Islam guarantees to the non-Muslims of a Muslim state. The Quran and the teachings of the Prophet are not only clear on this subject but also vigilant in upholding the rights of non-Muslims. Although religious minorities in Pakistan comprise of not only Hindus but Christians, Sikhs, Ahmadiyyas and other ethnic minorities, this paper intends to focus solely on the plight of the Hindus in Pakistan, in light of the freedom of religion guaranteed by Islam. The study shall focus on the persecution of the Hindu minorities by way of forced conversions, refusal of the right of practicing their own religion and the recent halt of the construction of a temple in Islamabad. The research further engages in the historical perspective of freedom of religion in Pakistan and its relationship with the Islamic ideology it possesses, as opposed to the true teachings of the Quran and Sunnah which is evidential of the harmonious relationship among people of all religions, cultures and ideology.


Abi-Habib, M., & ur-Rehman, Z. (2020, August 4). Poor and Desperate, Pakistani Hindus Accept Islam to Get By. The New York Times.
Ahmet Kurucan, & Mustafa Kasim Erol. (2012). Dialogue in Islam : Qur’an - Sunnah - history. Dialogue Society.
Akram, M. (2006). Introduction To Shariah And Muslim Jurisprudence. Cert Publications Sdn Bhd.
Al-Ayed, & Bin Hussain, S. (2002). The rights of non-Muslims in the Islamic world. Dar Eshbelia.
al-Wafa, A. A. (2001). Kitab al-I’lam bi-Qawaid al-Qanun al-Duwali wa-al-‘Alaqat al-Dawliyyah fi Shari‘at al-Islam. Dar al-Nahdah al-‘Arabiyyah.
Berween, M. (2006). Non-Muslims in the Islamic state: Majority rule and minority rights. The International Journal of Human Rights, 10(2), 91–102.
Blasphemy accusation in Pakistan sparks ransacking of Hindu temple, school. (2019, September 16). Reuters.
Curtis, L. (2016). Religious freedom in Pakistan: Glimmers of light on a darkening horizon. The Review of Faith & International Affairs, 14(2), 23-30.
Islamic activists halt construction of first Hindu temple in Islamabad. (2020, July 8). The Guardian.
Mahajan, V. D. (1965). The Constitution of Pakistan. Munawar.
Mohammad Hashim Kamali. (1992). Freedom of Religion in Islamic Law. Capital University Law Review, 21(1).
Mohd Nor, M. R., Khan, I., & Elius, M. (2018). Analysing the conceptual framework of religious freedom and interreligious relationship in Islam. Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies, 8(2), 309.
Mondal, A. A. (2016). Articles of Faith: Freedom of Expression and Religious Freedom in Contemporary Multiculture. Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations, 27(1), 3–24.
Objectives Resolution (1949). (2012, August 6). History Pak.
Pakistan. (n.d.). U.S. Department of State.
Pakistan blasphemy riots: Dozens arrested after Hindu teacher accused. (2019, September 16). BBC News.
Pakistan Penal Code (Act XLV of 1860). (2012).
'Reflections On The Life Of Prophet Muhammad S.A.W. (2020).
Refugees, U. N. H. C. for. (n.d.). Refworld | On Trial: The Implementation of Pakistan’s Blasphemy Laws. Refworld.
Rehman, J. (2001). Minority Rights and the Constitutional Dilemmas of Pakistan. Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, 19(4), 417–443.
Singh Bhalla, G. (2019, August 28). What Really Caused the Violence of Partition?
Singh, R. (n.d.). Persecution and Discrimination of Hindus in Pakistan. Retrieved June 25, 2022, from
Svanidze, T. (2020, February 7). Hindus and sikhs from pakistan flee to india fearing prosecution. New Europe.
Syed Abul ʻala Maudoodi, Zafar Ishaq Ansari, & Islamic Foundation (Great Britain. (2016). Towards understanding the Qur’ān : Abridged version of Tafhim al-Qur’an. Islamic Foundation.
Thumama bin Uthal (r.a.)» Questions on Islam. (n.d.). Questions on Islam.
Wani, H., Abdullah, R., & Chang, L. (2015). An Islamic Perspective in Managing Religious Diversity. Religions, 6(2), 642–656.

bottom of page