top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Economics and Business

Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2775-9237 (Online)

asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
open access

Published: 01 November 2019

An Analysis of Quality Human Resource Management (HRM) Practices in Bangladesh Ready-Made Garments Sector

Farhana Rashid, Che Azlan Taib, Rushami Zien Yusoff, Mohd. Akhir Hj. Ahmad

Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia

asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, management journal

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 1156-1165

Keywords: Human Resource Management, Quality performance, Employee productivity, RMG


Bangladesh Ready-Made Garments (RMG) had grown significantly over the last decades in every term but unfortunately quality of locally produced goods is still an issue. According to BGMEA report (2014) RMG consists around 40% manufacturing as well as 50% of the total workforce and 78% of total export earnings generated from this sector. Most of the employees in RMG are women, around 90%, where 4.2 million people are working in this sector. However, the potential growth and prospect in the Bangladesh RMG sector is huge. And for using these opportunities it should focus on the proper implementation of HR policies to emphasis quality performance. In recent knowledge-based economic condition, human resource is the most crucial resource as organizational effectiveness and efficiency is largely depends on the utilization capacity of this resource, especially in the case of Ready-made Garments industry in Bangladesh. Yet, the realities for RMG organizations are that their people remain undervalued, under-trained, and underutilized. Due to improper HR practices, labor unrest rate in RMG is high, and the employee productivity rate is lower than its competitors. As RMG is the rising sector for further investment, now a day a much concern is needed to improve and sustain garments companies growth. Human Resource Management requires much more concern in the Bangladesh RMG sector. In this aspect, literature proved that HR practices didn’t get much attention, which need to be measured and analyzed in the aspect of Bangladesh RMG sectors quality performance improvement as in RMG sector human resources is the main advantage for industrial growth and sustainable competitive advantage in business. So this study is required to lift up this expectation to fulfill this research gap


  1. Akhter, Sharmin. (2014). Deming Management Method in the Readymade Garments Industry of Bangladesh. Journal of Management, Vol. 9(1), 178-189.
  2. Ahamed, F. (2013). Could monitoring and surveillance be useful to establish social compliance in the ready-made garment (RMG) industry of Bangladesh? International Journal of Management and Business Studies, Vol. 3 (3), 088-100.
  3. Ahamed, F. (2012). Improving Social compliance in Bangladesh's Ready-made Garment Industry. Journal of Labour and Management in Development, Vol 13. Retrieved from:
  4. Apu, A. Abrar (2012). Compliance in Textile & Clothing Sector in Bangladesh: difficulties in understanding and implementation. Bangladesh Textile Today. Retrieved from:
  5. Ahmed, F. (2001). Strategic human resource management: Linking human resource management with corporate strategy. Journal of Business Studies, Vol. 12(1), 59-73.
  6. Arifur Rahman, & Soharab Hossain (2010). Compliance practices in Garment Industries in Dhaka City. Journal of Management, Vol. 5(2), 211-218.
  7. Akhter, S., Salahuddin, A., Iqbal, M., Malek, A. & Jahan, N. (2010). Health and occupational safety for female workforce of garment industries in Bangladesh. Journal of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 41(1), 65-70.
  8. Bansari, N. (2010). Textile and Clothing Sector in Post MFA Regime: A Case from Bangladesh, Gender and Trade. Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved from
  9. BKMEA. (2014). Export Performance of RMG of Bangladesh for 2011-12 and 2012-13. Annual Report of Bangladesh Knitwear Manufacturers and Export Association. Retrieved from facts-figures.html
  10. BBC. (2013b). Bangladesh garment industry looks to revive image. Retrieved from news/business-21007699
  11. Baral, Lal Mohan (2010). Comparative Study of Compliant & Non- Compliant RMG Factories in Bangladesh. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, Vol. 10(2), 93- 94.
  12. Berg, A., Herich, S., Kempf, S., Tochtermann, T., & McKinsey. (2011). Bangladesh ready-made garment landscape. Retrieved from
  13. Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association. (2015). Main Functions of BGMEA (2015). Retrieved from
  14. Bangladesh Garments manufactures and Exporters Association. (2010). Business and Trade information. Retrieved from
  15. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). (2010). Report on the Bangladesh Literacy Survey. Statistics Division. Ministry of Planning, Retrieved from: adesh%20Literacy%20Surver%202010f.pdf
  16. Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association. (2015). Annual Report of BGMEA. Retrieved from
  17. Bangladesh Knitwear Manufacturers and Exporters Association. (2015). Annual Report of BKMEA. Retrieved from
  18. German Embassy Dhaka. (2010). Social and Environmental Standards in the Bangladesh Ready-Made Garment Sector. Retrieved from
  19. Hossain, M. A. (2010). Employee Participation in Decision Making in RMG sector of Bangladesh: Correlation with Motivation and Performance. Journal of Business and Technology, Vol.5(2), 312-325.
  20. Hossan, C. G., Atiqur Rahman Sarker & Rumana Afroze. (2012). Recent unrest in the RMG sector of Bangladesh: is this an outcome of poor labour practices. International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 7(3), 123-124.
  21. Huda et al. (2007). HRM Practices and Challenges of Non-government Development Organisation: An Empirical Study on Bangladesh. Journal of Management, Vol. 9(1): 35-49.
  22. Hossain, J., Ahmed, M., & Akte, A. (2010). Bangladesh Labour Law: reform directions. BILS: Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  23. Hensler, B. (2013). Global wage trends for apparel workers: worker rights consortium. Centre for American Progress, Vol. 21(1), 231-243.
  24. Huda, K., Karim, M., & Ahmed, F. (2011). HRM practices & challenges of nongovernment development organizations: An empirical study on Bangladesh. Journal of Management, Vol. 9(1), 35-49.
  25. Islam, M. Z., & Siengthai, S. (2010). Human resource management practice & firm performance improvement in Dhaka export processing zone (DEPZ). Journal of Management, Vol.18 (1), 60-67.
  26. Israfil Shahin Seddiqe, & Avizit Basak. (2014). Importance of Human Resource Management and the Competitive Advantage: A Case Analysis on Basis of the Textile Industry of Bangladesh. Global Journal of Management and Business Research: A Administration and Management, Vol.14 (9), 93-115.
  27. I. M. Ariful, Nasima Begum, & Rashed C. A. A. (2012). Operational Disturbances and Their Impact on the Manufacturing Business- An Empirical Study in the RMG Sector of Bangladesh. International Journal of Research in Management & Technology (IJRMT), Vol. 2(2), 233-265.
  28. Jahid, H. (2013). The Competitiveness of Ready Made Garments Industry of Bangladesh in Post MFA Era: How Does the Industry Behave to Face the Competitive Challenge. British Journal of Economics, Management & Trade, Vol. 3(3), 296-306.
  29. Mottaleb, K.A., & Sonobe, T. (2011). An inquiry into the rapid growth of the garment industry in Bangladesh. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 12(1), 123-135.
  30. Munck, R.P. (2010). Globalization and the labour movement: challenges and responses. Global Labour Journal. Vol. 1(2), 218-232.
  31. Marriot, Red. (2010). Tailoring to Needs: garment worker struggles in Bangladesh. Journal of communist theory and Practice. Retrieved from http://
  32. Monem, M. (2011). Reform in a Hot Climate: privatisation and labour resistance in Bangladesh, 1975-90. Asian Affairs, Vol. 24 (2), 5-23).
  33. Muhammad, Anu. (2011). Wealth and Deprivation: Ready-made Garments Industry in Bangladesh. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 6(34), 23-27.
  34. Nurul Absar, & Monowar Mahmood (2011). New HRM Practices in the Public and Private Sector Industrial Enterprises of Bangladesh: A Comparative Assessment.International Review of Business Research Papers, Vol. 7(2), 118-136.
  35. Rahman, Z. (2011). Labour unions and labour movements in the readymade garment industry in Bangladesh in the era of globalization (1980-2009). Unpublished Ph.D thesis, University of Calgary, Canada.
  36. Rahman, Md. Arifur and Hossain, Mir Sohrab (2010). Compliance Practices in Garments Industries of Bangladesh. Journal of Business and Technology, Vol. 5(2), 72-75. Retrieved from:
  37. Rogers, William. (2010). The working conditions and wages of workers in the Bangladesh. Journal of Management, Vol. 12(1), 231-243.
  38. Rock, M. (2010). Labour conditions in the export-oriented garment industry in Bangladesh. Journal of South Asian Studies, Vol. 36(3), 89-111.
  39. Taib, C. A., Mohammed, A. H., Iteng, R. and Lazim, H. M. (2018). Framework of Implementing ISO 9000 and Total Quality Culture in Higher Education: A Concept. AIP Conference Proceedings. 2016(1): 1-7.
  40. Tatsufumi, Yamagata. (2007). Prospects for Development of the Garment Industry in Developing Countries. Discussion Paper, Vol. 101. Retrieved from:
  41. Uddin, M., Habib, M., & Hassan, M. (2007). Human resource management practices in power generation organizations of Bangladesh: A comparative study of public and private Sector. Journal of Business Studies, Vol. 3(2), 129-144.
  42. Ullah, A.A.S.M. (2014). Legacy of Rana Plaza: has social justice being established in Bangladesh? Suprovat Sydney, p. A12.
  43. Uddin, Md Abbas. (2012). Readymade Garments Industry of Bangladesh: How the Industry is Affect in Post MFA Period. Unpublished master’s thesis, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.
bottom of page