top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Economics and Business

Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2775-9237 (Online)

asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
open access

Published: 25 January 2022

Correlates and Clusters of Factors Influencing Perceived Organizational Performance of Pharmaceutical Managers in Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study

Theophilus Ehidiamen Oamen, Oamen Sophia Omorenuwa

Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria), University of Ibadan (Nigeria)

asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, management journal

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 29-39

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, Human Resource Management, Nigeria, Organizational Performance, Pharmaceuticals, Pharmaceutical Management, Sales Workforce Capacity


There is limited evidence to show how pharmaceutical managers are profiled based on managerial roles: operational, product, and strategic management level, using clustering and multivariate analyses. The constructs evaluated were:self-efficacy (SE), reward-structure (RS), policy-involvement (PE), task-environment (TE), communication-engagement (CE), and perceived organizational performance (OP). Study objectives were to investigate the profile of pharmaceutical managers based on functional roles and task constructs influencing their performance. Secondly, to assess the influence of SE, TE, PE, CE, and RS on OP of pharmaceutical managers. A literature-guided questionnaire cross-sectional study was administered by stratified random sampling to 241 managers involved in pharmaceutical marketing in Nigeria. Multivariate analyses were used to examine relationships between variables. Two-step Cluster analysis was used to explore the distinct structure of constructs. Kruskal Wallis test compared cluster groups at p≤.05. Associations existed between demographic attributes and managerial roles except for gender (p=0.085), and qualification as pharmacist or non-pharmacist (p=0.124). The regression model showed that SE, TE, and PE were significant predictors of OP. CS and RS had no significant influence on OP. Significant positive relationships were found between six constructs. Three clusters were computed with an overall median cluster score of 24.13. Strategic managers formed the dominant cluster 1 (mean=24.39) with comparatively higher value of PE than Clusters 2 (product managers) and 3 (operational managers). Higher performance scores were related to higher levels of perceived self-efficacy among managers. The study recommends need-specific interventions to address role-specific challenges affecting managers. Adopting improved communication and reward systems to improve overall performance is recommended.


  1. Aggerholm, H. K., & Thomsen, C. (2015). Strategic communication: The role of polyphony in management team meetings. In D. R. Holtzhausen & A. Zerfass (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of strategic communication. (pp. 172–189). New York, NY: Routledge

  2. Allen R. S., & Helms M. M. (2002). Employee perceptions of the relationship between strategy, rewards, and organizational performance. Journal of Business Strategy. 19(2):115 –39. 28.

  3. Anjum, A., Xu, Ming, X,, Siddiqi, A. F., et al. (2018). An Empirical Study Analyzing Job Productivity in Toxic Workplace Environments. International Journal of Environmental Research in Public Health. 15: 35

  4. Balogun J. (2003). From blaming the middle to harnessing its potential: Creating change Intermediaries. British Journal of Management. 14(1): 69-83.

  5. Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. Chapter 14. Self-efficacy beliefs of Adolescents. 307-337. Information Age Publishing

  6. Berberoglu, A. (2018). Impact of organizational climate on organizational commitment and perceived organizational performance: empirical evidence from public hospitals. BMC Health Services Research. 18:399.

  7. Berberoglu, A., & Secim, H. (2015). Organizational Commitment and Perceived Organizational Performance among Health Care Professionals: Empirical Evidence from a Private Hospital in Northern Cyprus. Journal of Economic Behaviour Studies. 7(1): 64-71

  8. Betteke, V. R. (2018). Communication Theory: An Underrated Pillar on Which Strategic Communication Rests. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 12(4):367-381

  9. Bruijn, H., & Heuvelhof. E. (2002). Policy analysis and decision making in a network: how to improve the quality of analysis and the impact on decision making. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal. 20(4):232-242.

  10. Bucata, G., & Rizescu, A. M. (2017). The role of communication in enhancing the work effectiveness of an organization. Land Forces Academy Review. XXII, 1(85):49-57.

  11. Chen, G., Gully, S. M., & Eden, D. (2001). Validation of a new general self-efficacy scale. Organizational Research Methods. 4; 62–83.

  12. Crum, M., Nelson T., de Borst J., et al. (2020). The use of cluster analysis in entrepreneurship research: Review of past research & future directions. Journal of Small Business Management. 1-40. Doi. 10.1080/00472778.2020.1748475

  13. Farashah, A. D., & Blomquist, T. (2021). Organizational culture and cultural diversity: an exploratory study of International skilled migrants in Swedish firms. Journal of Global Mobility. 9(2): 289-308.

  14. Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A.. et al. (2009). Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavioural Research Methods. 41:1149-1160.

  15. Francis, F., Zirra, C. T., & Mambula, C. J. (2020). Reward System as a Strategy to Enhance Employees Performance in an Organization. Archives of Business Research. 8(6).156-164.

  16. Gyurák, Z, Babelová. & Starecek, A, et al. (2020). Perceived Organizational Performance in Recruiting and Retaining Employees with Respect to Different Generational Groups of Employees and Sustainable Human Resource Management. Sustainability. 12, 574

  17. Katz, S., & Stupel, M. (2015). Promoting creativity and self-efficacy of elementary students through a collaborative research task in mathematics: a case study. Journal of Curriculum Teaching. 4(1); 68

  18. Kent P, Jensen R.K., & Konsgsted A. (2014). A comparison of three clustering methods for finding subgroups in MRI, SMS, or clinical data: SPSS Two-Step Cluster analysis, Latent Gold and SNOB. BMC Medical Research Method.  14:113.

  19. Kumar S. P., & Saha S. (2017). Influence of Trust and Participation in Decision making in Employee Attitudes in Indian Public Sector Undertakings. SAGE Open (2017):1-13.

  20. Lane, K., Esser, J., Holte, B., et al. (2010). A study of nurse faculty job satisfaction in community colleges in Florida. Teaching and Learning in Nursing. 5(1), 16-26.

  21. Leonard, S., & Droege, M. (2008). The uses and benefits of cluster analysis in pharmacy research. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. 4: 1–11.

  22. Marx-Fleck, S., Junker N. M., Artinger, F., et al. (2021). Defensive decision making: operationalization and the relevance of psychological safety and job insecurity from the conservation of resources perspective. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. 94(3): 616-644.

  23. Ngwa, W. T., Adeleke, B, S., Agbaeze, E, K., et al. (2019). Effect of Reward System on Employee Performance among Selected Manufacturing Firms in the Litoral Region on Cameroon Walters T. Academy of Strategic Management Journal. 18(3)

  24. Oamen, T. E. (2021). Analysis of factors influencing pharmaceutical sales workforce engagement in pharmaceutical marketing in Nigeria: a structural equation modeling approach. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 27: 405-410

  25. Oamen T. E., & Omorenuwa, O. S. (2021). An exploratory analysis of marketing-mix impact on supply channels used by community pharmacists engaged in healthcare services in Nigeria. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 13(10): 20-24.

  26. Ornoy, H. (2010). Correlates of employees’ attitudes towards participation in decision making. The IUP Journal of Organizational Behaviour. 9:7-15.

  27. Rezvani, Z. (2017). Who is a middle Manager: A literature review. International Journal Family Business Management. 1(2): 1-9

  28. Rodriguez M. Z., Comin, C. H., Casanova, D, et al. (2019). Clustering algorithms: A comparative approach. PLOS ONE. 14(1): e0210236.

  29. Rubina, E, & Azam, S. A. (2004). Self-Efficacy: Implication for Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management. Academy of Management Review. 12(3)

  30. Spector, P. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes and consequences, Thousand Oaks, CA, Inc. (Vol. 3). Sage Publications

  31. Tokarski, S., Tokarski, K., & Sikora, J. (2016). Levels of Management and economic performance of companies. Management. 20(1):81-95.

  32. Tohidi, H., & Jabbari, M. M. (2012). Decision role in management to increase the effectiveness of an organization. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 31 (2012) 825–828

  33. Torp, S. M. (2015). The strategic turn in communication science: On the history and role of strategy in communication science from ancient Greece until the present day. The Routledge handbook of strategic communication. (pp. 34-52). New York, NY: Routledge

  34. Zaki W., Ali A., Bakar A, et al. (2019). Role of self-efficacy in the relationship of training and employee performance. Paradigms.13(1): 67-74.

bottom of page